Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson LVIII - Conditional Relative Sentences

S531. A relative clause with an indefinite antecedent has a conditional force, and is called a conditional relative clause. This conditional relative clause stands in the relation of a protasis to the antecedent clause, which is its apodosis. Its negative is always μή.

S532. Review 304, 305; 306, 307; 316, 317; 363, 364; 523, 524, 525.

S533. A conditional relative sentence differs from a conditional sentence not in force, but only in form. It substitutes for the ordinary conditional particle εἰ, if, a relative pronoun or adverb, but with the added idea of the person, thing, time, place, or manner, contained in the relative.

1. ὅ τι βούλεται (= εἴ τι βούλεται, 305) πράξω.
I will do whatever he (now) wishes;
ὅ τι ἐβούλετο (= εἴ τι ἐβούλετο, 305) πράξω.
I will do whatever he wished.

2. ὅ τι ἐβουλήθη (= εἴ τι ἐβουλήθη, 307) ἔπρᾱξα ἂν.
I should have done whatever he had wished;
ὅ τι ἐβούλετο (= εἴ τι ἐβούλετο, 307) ἔπρᾱττον ἂν.
I should be doing whatever he wished.

3. ὅ τι ἂν βούληται (= ἐάν τι βούληται., 317) πράξω.
I will do whatever he wishes.

4. ὅ τι βούλοιτο (= εἴ τι βούλοιτο, 364) πράξαιμι ἂν.
I should do what ever he wished.

5. ὅ τι ἂν βούληται (= ἐάν τι βούληται, 524) πράττω.
I (always) do whatever he wishes;
ὅ τι βούλοιτο (= εἴ τι βούλοιτο, 525) ἔπρᾱττον.
I (always) did whatever he wished.

S534. The particles ἕως, ἔστε, ἄχρι, μέχρι, until, follow the construction of conditional relatives in both forms of future conditions (533, 3 and 4), in unfulfilled conditions (533, 2), and in present and past general suppositions (533, 5).

S535. The particle prin, before, until, is used in the same way, but only when the leading verb is negative or implies a negative.

Thus, οὐ πρόσθεν παύσομαι πρὶν ἂν ὑμᾶς καταγάγω οἴκαδε.
I will not stop until I bring you home.

S536. πρὶν, before, is followed also by the infinitive (471), but only when the leading clause is affirmative.

ἕως, conjunction, as long as, while, until.
ζάω, ζήσω, live, be alive.
ζώνη, ης, ἡ, belt, girdle.
θάνaτος, ου, ῾o, death.
καιρός, ου, ὁ, fitting time, occasion.
καταλύω, unloose, halt, dissolve, make peace.
καταψηφίζομαι, middle deponent, vote against.
μάχομαι, μαχοῦμαι, ἐμαχεσάμην μεμάχημαι, (compare μάχη), fight, give battle.
ὁπότε, relative adverb, when, whenever.
προσκυνέω, ποσκυνήσω, προσεκύνησα, (compare κυνέω, kiss); make obeisance to, salute.
προστάττω, assign, give orders to.
χῑλός, οῦ, ὁ, fodder, forage.

1. ἄξιος φίλος ἐστιν ὁ Κῦρος ᾡ ἂν φίλος ᾖ.

2. ὅπου στρατηγὸς ἔτι ζῴη, τὸν στρατηγὸν παρεκάλουν.
By contraction for ζαoίη (781).

3. ἐγὼ γὰρ φοβοίμην ἂν τῷ ἡγεμόνι ἡμῖν πέμψειεν ἕπεσθαι.
The relative is assimilated to the case of its antecedent (828).

4. ὁπόταν καιρὸς ᾐ, ἥξω ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν.

5. ὁπότε καταψηφίζοιντό τινος θάνατον οἱ Πέρσαι, ἐλάμβανον τῆς ζώνης.
Τhe genitive often depends on a preposition included in a compound verb (852).
The genitive follows verbs signifying to take hold of (845).

6. τούτους τοὺς σταθμοὺς πάνυ μακροὺς ἐπορεύοντο, ὁπότε ἢ πρὸς ὕδωρ βούλοιντο ἥκειν ἢ πρὸς χῑλόν.

7. οὐκ ἂν προσεκύνησαν ὃν μὴ ἐβούλοντο.

8. ἔσονται σπονδαὶ ἕως ἂν βασιλεὺς ἡμῖν προστάξῃ μάχεσθαι.

9. ὅτῳ οὖν ταῦτα μὴ δοκεῖ καλῶς ἔχειν, ἀποχωρησάτω.

10. οὐ καταλύσει πρὸς τοὺς πολεμίους πρὶν ἂν σοι συμβουλεύσηται.

1. We will trust the guide that Cyrus sends.
2. And in company with you I shall be in honor wherever I may be.
in company with, σύν.
3. Whenever the Greeks approached, the barbarians fled.
4. Let there be a truce until I return.
5. We should fear to use the boats that you might send us.

S540. Orontas is led away.
μετὰ ταῦτα κελεύοντος Κύρου ἔλαβον τῆς ζώνησ τὸν Ὀρόντᾱν
ἐπὶ θανάτῳ ἅπαντες οἱ παρόντες. εἶτα δ᾽ ἐξῆγον αὐτὸν οἷς
προσετάχθη, καὶ οἱ πρόσθεν προσκυνοῦντες αὐτὸν καὶ (even) τότε
προσεκύνησαν, καίπερ ἐπὶ θάνατον ἀγόμενον. ἐπεὶ δὲ εἰς τὴν
ἀρταπάτου σκηνὴν εἰσήχθη, σκηπτούχου πιστοῦ τῷ Κύρῳ
ὄντος, μετὰ ταῦτα οὐδὲν περὶ αὐτοῦ ἤκουεν οὐδείς˙ εἴκαζον
δὲ ἄλλοι ἄλλως ὅπῶς (now) ἀπέθανεν.

ἔλαβον . . . θανάτῳ: took him by the girdle as a sign that he was condemned to death, but then with ἐπὶ θάνατον, to execution.
although, strengthening the following concessive participle.
οὐδεν . . . οὐδεὶς: Greek doubles the negative, nothing . . . nobody; English says nothing . . . anybody.
ἄλλοι ἄλλως: some in one way, others in another (literally, others in another way ).
Second aorist of ἀποθνῄσκω.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 59


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin