Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson LIX - Comparison of Adjectives

S541. Most adjectives add τερος to the stem to form the comparative, and τατος to form the superlative.

πιστός (πιστο) faithful
πολέμιος (πολεμιο) hostile
ἀσφαλής (ἀσφαλεσ) safe

πιστότερος more faithful
πολεμιώτερος more hostile
ἀσφαλέστερος more safe

πιστότατος most faithful
πολεμιώτατος most hostile
ἀσφαλέστατος safest

S542. When the penult of stems in ο is long by nature, or the vowel of the penult is followed by two consonants, the stem remains unchanged; otherwise ο is lengthened to ω. For the declension, see 750.

S543. Some adjectives, chiefly in υς and ρος, are compared by changing these endings to ῑων and ιστος.

ἡδύς, sweet
κακός, bad
αἰσχρός, shameful

ἡδ-ιών more sweet
κακίων worse
αἰσχίων more shameful

ἥδιστος most sweet
κάκιστος worst
ἀίσχιστος most shameful

S544. Learn the declension of ἡδίεω in 752.

S545. Adjectives of the comparative degree take the genitive.
Thus, οὗτοι κακίονες εἰσι τῶν ἄλλων. Τhese are greater cowards than the others.

S546. Adjectives in the superlative may be followed by the partitive genitive.

Thus, πέμπει τῶν πελταστῶν τοὺς ἰσχῡροτάτους. Ηe sends the strongest of the light infantry.

S547. The superlative may express simply a very high degree of the quality.

Thus, πολεμιώτατος ἦν βασιλεὺς τοῖς Ἕλλησι. Τhe king was very hostile to the Greeks.

αἰσχρός, ά, όν, shameful, disgraceful.
Βαβυλών, ῶνος, ἡ, Babylon
βίος, ου, ὁ, life.
γεύω, γεύσω, ἔγευσα, γέγευμαι, give a taste; middle, taste.
ἴσως, adv, perhaps.
Κιλικίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ, (compare, κίλιξ), Cilicia
πλαίσιον, ου, τό, square, of troops.
πολεμικός, ή, όν, (compare πόλεμος), fit for war, skilled in war, warlike
σκευοφόρος, ον, baggage-carrying. σκευοφόρα as noun, pack-animals, baggage train.
ταχύς, εῖα, ύ, (compare τάχα), quick, swift.
τελευτάω, τελευτήσω, ἐτελεύτησα, τετελεύτηκα, ἐτελευτήθην, (compare τελευτή), bring to an end, end ones life, die
τελευτή, ῆς, ἡ, (compare τέλος), end.
τέλος, ους, τό, fulfilment, end.
χρόνος, ου, ὁ, time, season, period

1. τὰ δὲ κρέα τούτων τῶν ὀρνίθων ἥδιστα ἦν.

2. μὴ κακίους ὦμεν τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων.

3. ἐν τῇ τελευτῇ τοῦ βίου χαλεπώτατος ἐγένετο ὁ ἀνήρ.

4. οὔπω δὴ πολλοῦ χρόνου ἡδίονος οἴνου γέγευμαι.
Genitive of the time within which (854).
The genitive follows verbs signifying to taste (846).

5. τούτους ἔφασαν οἱ εἰς βαβυλῶνα στρατευσάμενοι πολεμικωτάτους εἶναι.

6. ἐντεῦθεν Κῦρος τὴν γυναῖκα εἰς τὴν Κιλικίᾱν ἀποπέμπει τὴν ταχίστην ὁδόν.
Adverbial accusative (835), by the shortest road.

7. οὗτοί εἰσι κάκιστοι τε καὶ αἴσχιστοι ἄνδρες.

8. τέλος δὲ μῑκρόταται γίγνονται αἰ τάφροι.
Adverbial accusative, finally.

9. Κῦρος οὕτως ἐτελεύτησεν, ἀνὴρ ὢν ἄρχειν ἀξιώτατος.
10. πάντες οὗτοι οἱ βάρβαροι πολεμιώτεροι ἡμῖν ἔσονται τῶν παρὰ βασιλεῖ ὄντων.

11. ἴσως οὖν ἀσφαλέστερον ἔσται ἡμῖν πορεύεσθαι πλαίσιον ποιησαμένους τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν, ἴνα τὰ σκευοφόρα ἐν ἀσφαλεστέρῳ ᾖ.
limits ἡμᾶς understood; the subject of πορεύεσθαι.

1. This road is narrower.
2. All were most faithful to the king.
3. Now we will proceed by a longer road.
4. The satrap was a very unjust man.
5. Of all the Persians Cyrus was most able to benefit his friends.

S551. Advance. Midnight Review.
ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει διὰ τῆς Βαβυλωνίᾱs σταθμοὺς τρεῖς παρασλάγγας
δώδεκα. ἐν δὲ τῷ τρίτῳ σταθμῷ Kῦρας ἐξέτασιν ποιεῖται τῶν ῾Eλλήνων
καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ περὶ μέσᾱς νύκτας. ἐδόκει γὰρ τῇ αὔριον
ἥξειν βασιλέᾱ σὺν τῷ στρατεύματι μαχούμενον. καὶ ἐκέλευε Kλέαρχον
μὲν τοῦ δεξιοῦ κέρως ἡγείσθαι, Mένωνα δὲ τοῦ εὐωνύμου, αὐτὸς δὲ
τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ διέταξε. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἐξέτασιν ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρᾳ ἥκοντες
αὐτόμολοι παρὰ μεγάλου βασιλέως ἀπήγγελλαν Kύρῳ περὶ τῆς βασιλέως

he thought.
scilicit. ἡμέρᾳ (811), the next day, dative of the time when (870).
Future infinitive in indirect discourse (469 )
Future participle expressing purpose (495,4).
Cyrus drew up his barbarian force (τοὺς ἑαυτου) on the left of the entire Greek force.
The dative follows ἁμα (864).


See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 60


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin