Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXXII - Subjunctive Active, Vivid Future Conditions

S312. Only the present, aorist, and perfect tenses occur in the subjunctive. The perfect is rare.

S313. The time expressed by the present and aorist subjunctive is generally future, the present expressing the action as going on or repeated, the aorist expressing simply its occurrence, as ἐὰν κωλύῃ if he shall be hindering, or if he shall hinder (habitually), but ἐὰν κωλύσῃ,simply if he shall hinder.

S314. Learn the conjugation of the subjunctive active of λύω in 765 (λύω), 767 (λύσω), and 768 (λελύκω).

S315. The subjunctive has the long vowel ω< or η in place of the final vowels ο or ε and α of the tense suffixes found in he indicative (138, 140, 148). The form is ω before μ or ν in the personal endings, elsewhere η. The subjunctive uses the endings of the primary tenses (136).

S316. ἐὰν πράττῃ (or πράξῃ) τοῦτο, καλῶς ἕξει, if he shall do this (if he does this), it will be well, si hoc faciet, bene erit.

The protasis is here introduced be ἐάν if, and and has the subjunctive; it states a supposed future case vividly. The apodosis has its verb in the future indicative, but any other future form might occur.

S317. When a supposed future case is stated distinctly and vividly (as in English, if I shall go, or if I go), the protasis has the subjunctive with ἐάν, and the apodosis has the future indicative or some other form of future time.

S318. Vocabulary.
ἀπὸχωρέω, ἀπὸχωρήσω, etc. (compare χωρα, χωρίον), give place, go away, withdraw.
βασιλεύω, βασιλεύσω, ἐβασίλευσα, (compare βασίλειος), be king.
ἐάν, by contraction ἄν or ἤν (εἰ + ἄν), conjunction, if, with subjunctive.
ἐμπόριον, ου, τό, trading place, emporium.
παρέχω, hold beside or near, furnish, supply, give, cause.
πολιορκέω, πολιορκήσω, etc., hem in a city, besiege.
πρᾶγμα, ατος, τό, (compare πράττω), deed, thing, affair, difficulty; plural, affairs, trouble.
ὠφελέω, ὠφελήσω, etc., help, assist, benefit.

1. ἢν παρέχωμεν ἀγοράν, ἔξετε τὰ ἐπιτήδεια.

2. ἐὰν μὴ ταῦτα ποιήσῃ, αδικήσει.

3. ἢν δὲ ἀποχωρήσωσι, Κῦρος αὐτοὺς οὐ τῑμήσει.

4. ἐὰν φίλον ποιήσῃς τοῦτον, ὠφελήσει.
Note: Verbs signifying to make may take a predicate accusative (here φίλον) besides the object accusative (840).

5. ἐὰν nῑκήσωμεν, τὴν χώρᾱν οὐ διαρπάσει.

6. ἐὰν οὖν πέμψητε τοῦτον πρὸς Κῦρον, πλοῖα ἕξετε.

7. ἐὰν δὲ μὴ πλοῖα ἄγῃ ἱκανά, τοῖς ἄλλοις χρησόμεθα.

8. ἐὰν δὲ οἱ Κίλικες πράγματα παρέχωσι, Κῦρος πορεύσεται ἐπ᾽ αὐτούς.

9. ἐὰν nῑκήσω, βασιλεύσω ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ.

10. ἐὰν τὸ ἐμπόριον πολιορκήσῃς ἀποχωρήσουσιν οἱ Κίλικες.

1. The messenger shall have ten minas, if he does this.
Note: (if he does this) use the aorist.

2. If he does not collect an army, his brother will be king.

3. If we proceed to this height, those above the road will withdraw.
Note: οἱ ὑπὲρ τὴς ὁδοῦ.

4. If he does not collect hoplites, he will not defeat his brother.

5. If we have troops and boats, we will besiege the emporium by land and sea.

S321. Safe Passage of the Syrian Gateway.
ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει ἐπὶ πύλᾱς τῆς Κιλικίᾱς καὶ τῆς Συρίᾱς.
ἦσαν δὲ αὗται δύο τείχη, καὶ τὸ μὲν πρὸ τῆς Κιλικίᾱς τεῖχος
Συέννεσις εἶχε καὶ Κικίλων φυλακή, τὸ δὲ πρὸ τῆς Συρίᾱς
Ἀρταξέρξου ἐλέγετο φυλακὴ φυλάττειν. διὰ μέσου δὲ
τούτων ῥεῖ ποταμός. καὶ ἡ πάραδος ἦν στενῂ καὶ τὰ τείχη
εἰς τὴν θάλατταν καθῆκεν. ταύτας τὰς πύλας οὐκ ἐφύλαξεν
ἀβροκόμᾱς, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπεὶ ἀκούει ὅτι Κῦρος ἐν Κιλικίᾳ ἐστί,
παρὰ Ἀρταξέρξην ἀπελαύνει.

πύλᾱς: the article is omitted, since the word is used almost as a proper name.
ἦσαν: were, consisted of.
τείχη: nominative plural of the neuter noun τεῖχος, wall.
πρό: facing.
διὰ μέσου: between.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 33


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin