Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXXIII - Subjunctive Action (continued) Subjunctive in Exhortations and in Final Cases

S322. Learn the conjugation of the present subjunctive of εἰμί, in 795.

1. τὸν ξένοn τῑμήσωμεν, let us honor our guest.
2. μὴ λύσωμεν τὴν γέφῡραν, let us not destroy the bridge.

Both of these sentences express exhortation; the verb in each is in the first person plural of the subjunctive. If the exhortation is negative, μή, not, is used.

S324. The first person of the subjunctive (generally plural) is used in exhortations. Its negative is μή.

1. τὴν γέφῡραν λύσομεν, ἵνα (also ὡς or ὅπῶς) τοὺς πολεμίους κωλύσωμεν, we will destroy the bridge, that we may check the enemy.

2. τοῦτον ἀπάγομεν, ἵνα μὴ (also ὡς μή or ὅπῶς μή or simply μή) κακῶς τοὺς φίλους ποιήσῃ, we are leading him away, that he may not do our friends harm.

The subordinate clauses here express purpose and take the subjunctive; they are introduced by the final participle ἵνα (also ὡς or ὅπῶς), that, in order that, or, if negative, by ἵνα μή (also ὡς μή, or ὅπῶς μή, or simply μή), that not, in order that not. The verb of the principle clause is in the primary (50) tense.

S326. Clauses which denote purpose (or final clauses) are introduced by the final particlesἱνα, ὡς or ὅπῶς, and take the subjunctive after the primary tenses. The negative is μή.

S327. Vocabulary
αἰτέω, αἰτήσω, etc., ask, ask for, demand.
ἀκούω, ἀκούσομαι, ἤκουσα, ἀκήκοα, ἠκούσθην, hear, learn, hear of, give heed to.
ἀπελαύνω, drive away, intransitive, ride, march, or go away.
ἐάω, ἐάσω, εἴᾱσα, εἴᾱκα, εἴᾱμαι, εἰάθην, (274), permit, allow, let go.
ἐκεῖ (compare ἐκεῖνος), adverb, in that place, there.
ἐλαύνω, (ἐλα), ἐλῶ, ἤλασα, ἐλήλακα, ἐλήλαμαι, ἠλάθην, drive; intransitive, drive, ride, march.
κωλύω, κωλύσω, etc., hinder, prevent, check.
οὐδέ, (οὑ + δὲ), negative conjugation, but not, and not, nor yet, nor; as adverb, not even, not at all.
συγκαλέω, call together, summon.
φεύγω (φυγ), φεύξομαι and φευξοῦμαι, ἔφυγον, πέφευγα, flee, run away, flee from, flee from one's country, be an exile.

1. μὴ τοῦτον ἐάσωμεν φεύγειν.

2. πάντας ὠφελεῖν πειρᾶται, ἵνα αὐτῷ φίλοι ὦσι.

3. διὰ τοῦ πεδίου ἐλαύνωμεν.

4. Κῦρον αἰτοῦσι πλοῖα, ὡς τοὺς πελταστὰς ἀποπέμψωσι.
Verbs signifying to ask take two object accusatives (838).

5. πολεμήσωμεν οὖν τοῖς βαρβάροις, ἵνα μὴ τοὺς φίλους κακῶς ποιήσωσιν.
Compare 293, 10.

6. ἐὰν δὲ ὁ σατράπης ᾖ ἐπὶ τῷ εὐφράτῃ ποταμῷ ἀπελῶ.

7. ἦν δὲ φεύγῃ, ἐκεῖ πρὸς ταῦτα βουλευσόμεθα.

8. οὐδ᾽ ἐὰν ταῦτ᾽ ἀκούσῃ, συγκαλεῖ τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς.

9. μὴ κωλύωμεν τὸ Κύρου στράτευμα ἀπελαύνειν.

1. Cyrus, let us honor our guest
Use the aorist.

2. Let us besiege the emporium both by land and by sea.
Use the aorist.

3. And let us send with Xenophon the peltasts from the van.
Use the dative (865).

4. What (τί) will the soldier have, if they conquer?
Use the aorist

5. He calls the generals together to persuade them to take the field with him.

S330. Xenias and Pasion Desert.
ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει διὰ Συρίᾱς εἰς Μυρίανδον˙ ἐμπόριον δ᾽
ἐστὶ τὸ χωρίον ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάττῃ, καὶ οἰκεῖται ὑπὸ Φοινίκων.
ἐνταῦθα μένουσιν ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά˙ καὶ Ξενίᾱς καὶ Πᾱσίων
πλοῖον λαβόντες καὶ τὰ χρήματα ἀποπλέουσι, χαλεπαίνοντες
ὅτι Κῦρος τὸν Κλέαρχον εἴᾱ τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς αὐτῶν ἔχειν. Κῦρος
δὲ συνεκάλεσε τοὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ ἔλεξε τάδε˙ "ἀπολελοίπασιν
ἡμᾶς (us) Ξενίᾱς καὶ Πᾱσίων. ἀλλὰ μὰ τοὺς θεοὺς οὐκ αὐτοὺς
διώξω, οὐδὲ αὐτοὺς κακῶς ποιήσω." οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλοι στρατηγοὶ ἐπεὶ
ἤκουσαν τὴν Κύρου ἀρετήν, ἡδέως συνεπορεύντο.

οἰκεῖται: passive, is inhabited.
λαβοντες: having taken, second aorist active participle of λαμβανω, declined likeἑκων (752), λαβων, λαβουσα, λαβον, etc.
θεούς: accusative in the negative oath (837).

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 34


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin