Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXXI - Deponent verbs, Conditional Sentences

S296. Review the indicative of λύω in 765 - 770, and of the perfect and pluperfect indicative middle and passive of mute verbs in 775 - 777.

S297. Many verbs called DEPONENT Verbs, have no active voice, but are used in the middle or in the middle and passive in an active sense.

S298. In most deponent verbs the principle parts are the present, future, aorist, and perfect of the indicative middle. These are called middle deponents. Thus, ἡγέομαι, lead, conduct, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην, ἥγημαι.

S299. A few deponent verbs have the aorist passive instead of the aorist middle. These are called passive deponents. Thus βούλομαι, will, wish, βουλήσομαι, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθην.

S300. Some verbs which have active forms are nevertheless used almost exclusively in the middle, or middle and passive, and practically become deponents, as μεταπέμπομαι, and συστρατεύομαι, used as middle deponents, and πορεύομαι, as a passive deponent.

S301. In the conditional sentences the clause containing the condition is called the protasis, and that containing the conclusion is called the apodosis. The protasis is introduced by some form of εἰ, if.

S302. The supposition contained in the protasis may be either particular or general. A particular supposition refers to a definite act supposed to occur at a definite time. A general supposition refers indefinitely to any act, which may be supposed to occur at any time.

S303. The negative of the protasis is regularly μή, that of the apodosis is οὐ.

1. εἰ πράττει τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει, if he is doing this, it is well, si hoc facit, bene est.
2. εἰ ἔπρᾱξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει, if he did this, it is well, si hoc fecit, bene est.

S305. When the protasis simply states a present or past particular supposition, implying nothing as to the fulfillment of the condition, it has the indicative with εἰ. Any form of the verb may stand in the apodosis.

1. εἰ ἔπρᾱξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν, if he had done this, it would have been well, si hoc fecisset, bene fiusset.

2. εἰ ἔπρᾱττε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν εἶχεν, if he were (now) doing this, it would be well, si hoc faceret, bene esset; or, as in 306, 1, if he had done this, it would have been well.

The protasis in these examples has a secondary tense of the indicative; it states a supposition in the present or past, and implies that the condition is not or was not fulfilled. The apodosis has a secondary tense of the indicative with ἄν.

S307. 1. When he protasis states a present or past supposition, implying that the condition is not or was not fulfilled, the secondary tenses of the indicative are used in both protasis and apodosis. The apodosis has the adverb ἄν.

2. The imperfect here refers to the present time or to an act as going on or repeated in past time (compare 306, 2), the aorist to a simple occurrence in the past time.

S308. Vocabulary.
ἀπάγω, lead away or back.
βούλομαι, βουλήσομαι, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθην, will, wish, desire.
ἡγέομι, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην, ἥγημαι, (compare ἄγω), lead the way, lead, guide, conduct.
καλῶς, (compare καλός), adverb, beautifully, bravely, finely, successfully, well; καλῶς ἔχει, it is well.
μή, adverb, not.
πειράομαι, πειράσομαι, πεπείρᾱμαι, ἐπειράθην, (274) try, attempt.
πράττω (πρᾱγ), πράξω, ἔπρᾱξα, πέπρᾱγα, and πέπρᾱχα, πέπρᾱγμαι, ἐπράχθην, do, act, accomplish.
χράομαι, χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην, κέχρημαι, (compare χρῆμα), use, make use of, employ.

1. Κῦρος τοῖς ἵπποις καλῶς ἐχρήσατο.
Note: χράομαι use (serve oneself by); takes the dative of means (866). Compare Latin utor with the ablative.

2. εἰ ταῦτα ἔπρᾱξαν, καλῶς ἔσχεν.

3. εἰ ταῦτα ἔπρᾱξαν, καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν.

4. Ξενοφῶν ἐβούλετο μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων πορεύεσθαι.

5. τῷ στρατεύματι ἤγηται εἰς τὸ πεδίον.
Note: Dative of advantage. (861).

6. ἐβουλήθη πέμπειν ἀπὸ τοῦ στόματος ὁπλίτᾱς.

7. τὸν δὲ στρατηγὸν ἐπειρᾶτο πείθειν.

8. εἰ μὴ βούλεται Κλεάρχος αὐτοὺς ἀπάγειν, ἄλλοι στρατηγοὶ ἡγήσονται.

9. ἐπορεύετο ἂν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους, εἰ στράτευμα εἶχεν.

10. ἀλλ᾽ εἰ βούλονται σὺν τοῖς ἄλλοις πορεύεσθαι εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα, ἥκειν κελεύει αὐτοὺς τῆς νυκτόs.

1. If he has the money, he will send (it) to the army.
2. He has attempted to cut the enemy's army to pieces in the night.
3. If this were so, I will lead the troops at once to the stronghold.
Note: οὕτως ἔχει.
4. He would not have done this if I had not bidden him.
5. He wished to dismiss all the guards.

S311. Arrival of the Fleet at Issus with Reinforcements.
ἐνταῦθεν ἐξελαύνει σταθμοὺς πέντε παρασάγγας
τριάκοντα εἰς Ἰσσούς. ἐνταῦθα μένουσιν ἡμέρᾱς τρεῖς˙
καὶ Κύρῳ παρῆσαν αἱ ἐκ Πελοποννήσου νῆες τριάκοντα
καὶ πέντε καὶ ἐπ᾽ αὐταῖς ναύαρχος Πῡθαγόρᾱς Λακεδαιμόνιος.
αἱ δὲ νῆες ὥρμουν παρὰ τὴν Κύρου σκηνήν. παρῆν δὲ καὶ
Χειρίσοφος Λακεδαιμόνιος, μετάπεμπτος ὑπὸ Κύρου,
ἑρτακοσίους ἔχων ὁπλίτᾱς˙ τούτων ἐστρατήγει παρὰ Κύρῳ.

νῆες: nominative plural of ναυς. Compare Latin naues.
αὐταις: refers to νηες, which is feminine.
ὥρμουν: see ὁρμέω.
μετάπεμπτος: verbal adjective from μεταπέμπομαι.
ἐστρατήγει: compare στρατηγόs. The genitive follows στρατηγέω. (847).

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 32


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin