Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXV - Labial and Palatal Mute Stems of the Consonant Declension

S239. The Third or Consonant Declension includes all nouns whose stems end in a consonant or in ι or υ. The stem may generally be found by dropping the case ending of the genitive singular.

S240. The case ending are:

Singular Plural
N or __ (-s or __) -ες (-ēs)
G -ος (-is) -ων (-um)
D (-ī ) -σι (-ibus)
A or ν (-em) -ας or -νσ (-ēs)
V or __ (s or -) -ες (-ēs)
Singular Plural
__ (__) (-α)
-ος (-is) -ων (-um)
(-i) -σι (-ibus)
__ (__) (-a)
__ (__) (-a)

a. The corresponding forms in Latin are added in parenthesis.

S241. The dual has N.A.V. -ε, G.D. -οιν, in all genders.

S242. Learn the declension of κλώψ, thief, φύλαξ, guard, φύλαξ, guard, φάλαgξ, phalanx, and διῶρυξ, canal, in 743.

S243. In the nominative singular and dative plural ς unites with a final labial (π β φ) in the stem to form ψ, with a final palatal ( κ γ χ) to form ξ.

S244. Monosyllabic stems of the consonant declension accent the last syllable in the genitive and dative of all numbers. The endings οιν and ων are circumflexed.

S245. Vocabulary.
διῶρυξ, υχος, ἡ, canal, ditch.
εἰσβολή, ῆς, ἡ, entrance, pass
ἔπειμι, be on or upon, be over.
Θρᾷξ, Θρᾳκός, ὁ, a Thracian.
θώρᾱξ, ᾱκος, ὁ, breastplate.
κῆρυξ, ῡκος, ὁ, herald.
Κίλιξ, ικος, ὁ, Cilician.
κλώψ, κλωπός, ὁ, thief.
φάλαγξ, φάλαγγος, ἡ, line of battle, phalanx.
φύλαξ, ακος, ὁ, (compare φυλάττω), watcher, guard.


1. Κλέαρχος εἶχεν ὁπλίτᾶς χῑλίους καὶ πελταστὰς Θρᾷκας.

2. ἐκέλευσε πορεύσθαι τὴν φάλαγγα.

3. διὰ τοῦ θώρᾱκος ἐτοξεύθη ὑπὸ τοῦ Κίλικος.

4. τότε δὲ ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρα κήρῡκας ἔπεμψε περὶ σπονδῶν.
at daybreak, literally, at the same time with the day.
The dative is used with words implying union. (864)

5. ἐν δὲ τῇ εἰς τὸ πεδίον εἰςβολῇ τεταγμένιο εἰσὶ τῶν Κιλίκων φύλακες.

6. ἀλλ᾽ ἐν μέσῳ ἦμεν τοῦ ποταμοῦ καὶ τῆς διώρυχος.
ἐν μέσῳ, between

7. οἱ γὰρ τοξόται τοὺς κλῶπας ἐδίωξαν.

8. τὸ δὲ εὐώνυμον τῆς φάλαγγος αὐτῶν παρὰ τῷ ποταμῷ ἦν.

9. τοῖς γὰρ Θρᾳξὶ πολέμιος ἦν.

10. εἰτεῦθεν ἐπορεύντο ἐπὶ τὴν διώρυχα˙ γέφῡραι δ᾽ ἐπῆσαν.

1. This thief was dishonored.
2. The Cilicians have horses.
3. He sent Thracians (as) guards.
4. The heavy armed men wore breastplates.
5. The canal is long and narrow, and upon it is a bridge.

S248. The Troops are Forced to Halt at Cilician Pass.
ἐκ δὲ Τυριαίου ἐξελαύνει πρὸς Δάνα. καὶ Λυκᾱονίᾱν
διήρπασαν οἱ στρατιώται. πολεμίᾱ γὰρ αὐτῷ ἦν. ἐν
δὲ Δάνοις μένει ὁ Κῦρος ἡμέρᾱς τρεῖς, καὶ ἀποκτίενει
Μεγαφέρνην, φοινῑκιστὴν βασίλειον˙ ἐπεβούλευε γὰρ
αυτῷ. ἐντεῦθεν εἰσέβαλλον εἰς τὴν Κιλικίᾱν˙ ἡ δὲ
εἰσβολὴ ἦν ὁδὸς ἁμαξιτός, ὀρθίᾱ καὶ στηνή˙ ἐλέγετο δὲ
καὶ Συέννεσις ὁ Κίλιξ εἶναι ἐπὶ τῶν ἄκρων, φυλάττων τὴν
εἰσβολήν. διὰ τοῦτο ἔμενον ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ.

εἰσέβαλλον, they tried to enter, imperfect of εἰσβάλλω, expressing attempted action.
ἁμαξιτός: compare ἅμαξα.
φυλάττων: guarding, present participle active.

From Turianau he traveled to Dana. And the soldiers Luconian they plundered,
for enemies they were. In Dana, Cyrus remained for three days. And he put to
death Megaphernes, royal purple-wearer, for conspiring against him. Then they
tried to enter Cilicia, but the entrance to the wagon road was steep and narrow.
It was said that Syennesis the Cilician was on the heights, guarding the entrance.
For this reason, he remained a day on the plain.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 26


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin