Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXVI - Lingual Mute Stems of the Consonant Declension
S249. Learn the declension of νύξ, night, ἀσπίς, shield, ὄρνις, bird γέρων, old man, and ἅρμα, chariot, in 744.

S250. In the nominative singular and dative plural of the first three nouns the final lingual (τ δ θ) of the stem is dropped before ς. νύξ therefore stands for νυκτ-ς, νυκ-ς, κς becoming ξ. So νυκτ-σι, νυκ-σι, νυξί.

S251. The fourth noun γερων rejects σ in the nominative, and lengthens ο to ω. Final τ is dropped, since this letter cannot stand at the end of a word. In the dative plural both ν and τ are dropped before σ and ο is lengthened to ου.

S252. In the accusative singular most masculines and feminines add α to consonant stems, but nouns in ις, except oxytones (25), drop the final τ δ θ of the stem and add ν. Thus ὄρνις (stem ὀρνῑθ), ὄρνῑν, but ἀσπίς, oxytone (stem ἀσπιδ), ἀσπίδα.

S253. The vocative singular of most masculines and feminines with mute stems is like the nominative, but the vocative singular of stems in ιδ, and of those in ντ except of oxytones, is the mere stem. Final δ or τ is dropped, since neither of these letters can stand at the end of a word. Thus vocative ἀσπί, γέρον.

S254. The nominative, accusative and vocative singular of neuters, such as ἅρμα, are the simple stem. Final τ is dropped. In the dative plural τ is dropped before σ.

S255. Vocabulary.
ἅρμα, ατος, τό, chariot.
ἀσπίς, ίδος, ἡ, shield.
γέρων, οντος, ὁ, old man.
ἐλπίς, ίδος, ἡ, hope.
νίκη, ης, ἡ, victory.
νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ, night.
ὄρνῑς, ῑθος, ὁ, ἡ, bird.
στόμα, ατος, τό, mouth, of an army, van.
στράτωυμα, ατος, τό, (compare στρατια, στρατιωτης) army.
χάρις, ιτος, ἡ, grace, favor, gratitude; χάριν ἔχω, be or feel grateful.

1. ἐν δὲ ταῖς σκηναῖς ἦσαν ἀσπίδες.

2. ἔστι δὲ στράτευμα Περσικὸν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.

3. τοῖς οὖν θεοῖς χάριν εἶχον τῆς νίκης.
for victory, a genative of cause (851)

4. τὴν γέφυραν ταύτην λελύκεν ὁ σατράπης τῆς νυκτός.
Genitive of the time within which (854)

5. τῷ δὲ γέροντι τούτῳ ἐκεῖνοι πολέμιοι ἦσαν.

6. ἐπορεύοντο δὲ εὐθὺς ἐπὶ τὸ τοῦ ποταμοῦ στόμα.

7. σὺν τοῖς θεοῖς καλαὶ τῷ στρατεύματι ἐλπίδες εἰσὶ νίκης.

8. ἐν δὲ ταῖς οἰκίαις ἦσαν ὀρνῑθες.

9. ἔχομεν καὶ ὅπλα καὶ ἅρματα καὶ ἱκανὰ τὰ ἐπιτήδεια.

1. We feel grateful to the old man.
2. At night they ceased from battle.
Genitive of seperation.
3. Cyrus had twenty chariots.
4. The bowman shot birds and wild asses in the plain.
5. The army was cut to pieces by these barbarians.

S258. Cyrus reaches Tarsus, which the Troops destroy.
τῇ δ᾽ ὑστεραίᾳ ἧκεν ἄγγελος λέγων ὅτι πέφευγε Συέννεσις.
Κῦρος οὖν ἀναβαίνει ἐπὶ τὰ ἄκρα, ἐντεῦθεν δὲ καταβαίνει εις
πεδίον καλόν. διὰ δὲ τοῦτου ἐλαύνει παρασάγγας πέντε καὶ
εἴκοσιν εἰς Ταρσούς, ἔνθα ἦν βασίλεια. ἐν δὲ τῇ ὑπερβολῇ τῇ
εἰς τὸ πεδίον κατεκόπησαν, ὡς λέγεται, ἐκατὸν ὁπλῖται τοῦ
Μένωνος στρατεύματος ὑπὸ τῶν Κιλίκων. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ἐπεὶ ἧκον,
Ταρσοὺς διήρπασαν διὰ τὸν ὄλεθρον τῶν στρατιωτῶν.

τῇ ὑστεραια: the next (day), ἡμέρᾳ being understood, a dative of the time when. (870).
πέφευγε: second perfect of φευγω, flee.
ἀνα-βαίνει: the verb βαίνω means go.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 27


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin