Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXIV - Prepositions

S226. Prepositions are use with the genitive, dative and accusative. Some prepositions are used with only one of these cases, others with two, others with all three.

S227. The prepositions ἀντί, instead of, ἀπὸ off from, from, Latin ab, ἐξ out of, from, Latin ex, and πρό before, Latin pro, take only the genitive. ἐξ signifies from within, out of, ἀπό off from, away from.

S228. ἐν, in, Latin in with the ablative, and σύν, with, Latin cum, take only the dative.

S229. ἀνά, up, and εἰς, into, Latin in with the accusative, take only the accusative.

S230. ἀμφί, about, διά, through, on account of κατά, down μετά, in company with, after, and ὑπέρ, over, Latin super, take the genitive and the accusative.

S231. ἐπί, on, upon, παρά, alongside of, beside, περί, round, about πρός, over against, at, to, and ὑπό, under, Latin sub, take the genitive, dative and accusative. Note (compare 202)

S232. In general, the genitive with prepositions denotes that from which something proceeds, the dative that in or by which something is or takes place, the accusative that towards, over, along or upon which motion occurs as:

ἄγγελος ἐστι παρὰ Κύρου. He is a messenger from (beside) Cyrus.
παρὰ τῷ Κύρῳ ἦσαν οἱ στρατηγοί. The generals were beside Cyrus.
ἄγουσι τὸν ἄνθρωπον παρὰ Κῦρον. They bring the fellow to Cyrus.

S233. The chief relations expressed by the prepositions are place and time; but they express also cause, origin, means, agency, condition, purpose, and other important ideas, The original force of the preposition shades off into many meanings.

S234. Prepositions are used in forming compound verbs (93).

a. In determining the force of a preposition in any sentence, the pupil should study the connection of the preposition with the other words in the sentence, or with the verb to which it is prefixed, keeping the original meaning of the preposition in mind. The general vocabulary must be constantly consulted.

S235. Vocabulary.
ἀλλά, conjunction, but, yet, stronger than δὲ.
ἀμφί, preposition: with genitive, about, concerning; with accusative, about, round.
ἀνά, preposition with accusative, up, up along , up to, with numerals, at the rate of.
ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἦρξα, ἆργμαι, ἄρχθην, (compare ἀρχή), be first, rule, reign over, command, middle, begin.
αὖ, adverb, again, in turn, moreover.
εἶτα, adverb, then, thereupon.
εὐθύς, adverb, at once, immediately.
περί, preposition: with genitive, about, concerning, with dative, round, about, with accusative, about, all round, round.
πρό, preposition with genitive, before, in front of, for.
πρῶτος, η, ον, (compare πρὸ), first, foremost; πρῶτον as adverb, first.
ὑπέρ, preposition: with genitive, over, above, in behalf of; with accusative, over, above.

1. σύμμαχοι ἀγαθοί εἰσιν οἱ ἀμφὶ Κῦρον.
Note: those about Cyrus, i.e. his attendants.

2. οἱ δὲ ἄλλοι ἐθήρευον τὰ θηρία ἀπὸ ἵππων.

3. οἱ Κύρου φίλοι ἑστρατευμένοι εἱσὶν ὑπὲρ αὐτοῦ.

4. ταῦτα περὶ τῆς στρατιᾶς ἄγγελοι παρὰ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ ἔλεξαν Κύρῳ πρὸ τῆς μάχης.

5. μετὰ τοῦτο πορεύονται ἑπτὰ σταθμοὺς ἀνὰ πέντε παρασάγγας τῆς ἡμέρᾱς παρὰ τὸν ποταμόν.
Note: each day, genitive of the time within which (854).

6. Κῦρος οὐκ ἔστιν επὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, ἀλλ᾽ ἄξιος ἐστιν ἄρχειν ἀντ᾽ ἐκείνου.

7. ἐκεῖνος δὲ τῶν ὁπλῖτων ἦρχεν˙ οὗτοι δ᾽ αὖ πρὸ αὐτοῦ Ἀρταξέρξου τεταγμένοι ἦσαν.
Note: The genitive follows ἀρχω (847).

8. Κῦρος ἐκέλευσε τὸν Κλέαρχον πρῶτον μὲν τάττειν τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς, εἶτα δὲ ἄγειν διὰ τοῦ πεδίου.

9. ὁ δὲ σατράπης πορεύεται εὐθὺς παρὰ τὸν Ἀρταξέρξην, καὶ στρατιώτας ἔχει ἀμφὶ τοὺς τριακοσίους.

1. The messengers will proceed from the market place to the tents.

2. Cyrus and his staff proceed immediately to the palace.
Note: and his staff i.e. those about Cyrus.

3. He had a stronghold above the village.
4. Before the battle, the generals sacrificed in their tents to the gods.
Note: Dative without a preposition.

S238. The Greeks inspire the Barbarians with Fear.
ἐξετάζει οὖν ὁ Κῦρος πρῶτον μὲν τοὺς βαρβάρους˙
οἱ δὲ παρελαύνουσι τεταγμένοι κατὰ ἴλᾱς˙ εἶτα δὲ τοὺς
ἄλλους στρατιώτας. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἔπεμψεν ἄγγελον
παρὰ τοὺς στρατηγοὺς τοὺς Ἑλληνικοὺς καὶ ἐκέλευσε
πορεύεσθαι ὥσπερ εἰς μάχην˙ οἱ δὲ ταῦτα ἔλεξαν τοῖς
στρατιώταις˙ καὶ ἐπεὶ ἐσάλπιγξεν ὁ σαλπικής, προβάλλονται
τὰ ὅπλα καὶ σὺν κραυγῇ τρέχουσιν ἐπὶ τὰς σκηνάς.
τοῦτο δὲ τοῖς βαρβάροις φόβον παρεῖχε.

οἱ δὲ and they, the article being used as a demonstrative.
τεταγμένοι, having been drawn up, perfect passive participle.
κατὰ ἴλᾱς, by companies. (ἰλη).
ἐσάλπγξεν, aorist of σαλπιζω. For a picture of a trumpeter (σαλπικτης), see No. 55.
παρ-εῖχε, caused (παρ-έχω).

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 25


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin