Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXIII - Perfect, Pluperfect Indicative Middle and Passive of Palatal and Lingual Mute Verbs

S216. Learn the conjugation of the perfect and pluperfect indicative middle and passive of ἄγω, lead, bring, in 776 (ἦγμαι, and ἤγμην).

1. A palatal mute (κ γ χ) before μ becomes (or remains) γ; with σ it forms ξ; before τ and ξ it becomes (or remains) respectively κ and χ.
2. σ between two consonants is dropped.

S218. Conjugate also the corresponding perfect and pluperfect of τάττω (ταγ), arrange, draw up (τέταγμαι and ἐτετάγμην).

S219. Learn the conjugation of the perfect and pluperfect indicative middle and passive of πείθω persuade, middle, obey, in 777 (πέπεισμαι and ἐπεπείσμην).

1. A lingual mute (τ δ θ) before μ becomes σ; before σ it is dropped; before τ and θ it becomes σ.
2. σ between two consonants is dropped.

S221. Conjugate also the corresponding perfect and pluperfect of ἁρπάζω (ἁρπαδ) rob (ἥρπασμαι and ἡρπάσμην).


S222. Vocabulary.
εὐ, adverb, well.
εὐώνυμος, ον, (130), of a good name or omen, euphemistic for left, on the left side, as contrasted with δεξιός.
μέσος, η, ον, middle; τὸ μέσον, the middle, center.
παρασκευάζω, παρασκευάσω, etc. (compare παρασκευή), get or make ready, prepare.
συντάττω, draw up together, marshal.
τάττω, (ταγ), τάξω, ἔταξα, τέταχα, τέταγμαι, ἐτάχθην, arrange, order, especially of troops, draw up, marshal, post.
ὑποζύγιον, ου, τό, beast of burden, plural, baggage animals.
φυλάττω, (φυλακ), φυλάξω, ἐφύλαξα, πεφύλαχα, πεφύλαγμαι, ἐφυλάχθην, guard, watch, defend; middle, defend oneself against, guard against.

1. τοῦτον δὴ εὖ πεφυλάγμεθα.

2. ἦκτια ἡ στρατιὰ κατὰ (against) τὸ τῶν πολεμίων μέσον.

3. οἱ δὲ πολέμιοι ἠθροισμένοι εἰσὶ καὶ συντεταγμένοι.

4. Ἀρταξέρξης εἰς μάχην παρεσκεύαστο.

5. οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται εὖ τεταγμένοι εἰσίν.

6. τῷ δὲ λοχᾱγῳ τούτῳ ἡδέως πέπεισμαι.
Note: Verbs signifying to obey take the dative. (860).

7. ἐτέτακτο δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ εὐωνύμῳ οὗτος ὁ στρατηγὸς.
Note: on the left (wing).

8. οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἠγμένοι ἧσαν εἰς τὴν Ἀρταξέρξου σκηνήν.

9. καὶ τὰ ὅπλα τοῖς στρατιώταις ἐπὶ ἁμαξῶν ἦκτο καὶ ὑποζυγίων.
Note: for the soldiers, a dative of advantage (861).

10. αἱ δὲ σκηναὶ πεφυλαγμέναι εἰσὶ τοῖς βαρβάροις.
Note: The agent (203).

1. We have well defended ourselves against him. 2. The army has been led against the center of the enemy. 3. The enemies have gathered and drawn up in battle order. 2. Artaxerxes, for the battle he has prepared. 5. These soldiers have been well marshalled. 6. For this captain, I have gladly obeyed. 7. Posted on the left wing, thus the general was. 8. The generals had been lead into the tent of Artaxerxes. 9. And the weapons for the soldiers had been carried on the wagons and the baggage animals. 10. The tents were guarded by the barbarians.

1. The fellow had been lead into the presence of Clearchus.
2. But we had obeyed Cyrus.
3. The men on the left (wing) had been posted on the bridge.
4. You have prepared yourselves against dreadful foes.
5. The horses and the beasts of burden had been led through a hostile country.

S225. The march continues. Review of troops.
ἐντεύθεν ἐξελαύνει εἰς Θύμβριον. ἐνταῦθα ἦν παρὰ τὴν ὁδὸν κρήνη˙
ἐπὶ δὲ ταύτῃ λέγεται Μίδᾱς τὸν Σάτυρον θηρεῦσαι. ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει
εἰς Τυριαῖον, καὶ ἐξετάζει ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ τὴν στρατιάν. ἐκέλευσε δὲ τοὺς
Ἑλληνικοὺς στρατιώτας ταχθῆναι ὥσπερ εἰς (for) μάχην. ἐτάχθησαν
οὖν ἐπὶ τεττάρων (four deep)˙ εἶχε δὲ τὸ μὲν δεξιὸν Μένων καὶ οἱ σὺν
αὐτῷ, τὸ δὲ εὐώνυμον Κλέαρχος καὶ οἱ ἐκείνου, τὸ δὲ μέσον οἱ ἄλλοι

θηρεῦσαι - to have caught, aorist infinitive active.
ταχθῆναι - first aorist infinitive passive, to be drawn up.
ὥσπερ - as if.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 24


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin