Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXII - Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect Indicative Middle and Passive of Labial Mute Verbs

S208. Learn the conjugation of the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect indicative middle and passive of λείπω, leave, in 775 (λέλειμμαι, ελελείμμην, and (λελείψομαι).

S209. The concurrence of consonants in the stem and endings (note the forms in parenthesis) occasions euphonic changes, according to the following principles:

1. A labial mute (π β φ) before μ changes to μ; with σ it forms ψ; before τ and ξ it becomes (or remains) respectively π and φ.

a. When μμμ would thus result, one μ is dropped, as πέμπω, send, (πεπεμ-μαι), πεπεμψαι, πεπέμπ-ται, etc.

2. σ between two consonants is dropped.

S210. The third person plural of the perfect and pluperfect is a compound form, consisting of the perfect middle or passive participle and εἰσί in the perfect, and of this and ἦσαν in the pluperfect.

S211. Conjugate also the perfect and pluperfect indicative middle and passive of πέμπω, (πέπεμμαι etc.) and of γράφω (γέγραμμαι, etc.).

S212. Vocabulary.
ἅμα, adverb, at the same time.
ἀριθμός, οῦ, ὁ, number, enumeration.
δένδρον, ου, τό, tree.
κατά, preposition: with genitive, down from; with accusative, down along, over, by.
καταλείπω, leave behind, abandon.
κατακόπτω, cut down or in pieces.
κόπτω, (κοπ), κόψω, ἔκοψα, κέκοφα, κέκομμαι, ἐκόπην, cut, fell.
λείπω, (λιπ), λείψω, ἔλιπον, λέλοιπα, λέλειμμαι, ἐλείφθην, leave
Πρόξενος, ου, ὁ, Proxenus.
τριάκοντα, indeclinable, thirty.
χίλιοι, αι, α, 1000

1. καταλελειμμένοι εἰσὶ τριάκοντα τοξόται;
2. ἅμα δὲ ἐπέπεμψο, ὦ Πρόξενε, ἐπὶ τὴν γέφυραν.
3. κατακέκοπται τοῖς πολεμίοις ἡ στρατιά.
Note: The agent (203).
4. ὁπλῖται χίλιοι πεπεμμένοι ἦσαν κατὰ θάλατταν.
5. ὀλίγοι τῶν Κύρου φίλων καταλελειμμένοι ἔσαν.
6. λελειμμένοι ἦσαν οἱ στρατιῶται.
7. ἐκ ταύτης τῆς κώμης ἄγγελος ἐπέπεμπτο πρὸς Κῦρον.
8. τὰ δένδρα κέκοπται.
9. Κῦρος ἀποπεπέμπται τὸν ἄγγελον.
Note: ἀποπεπέμπται Middle.
10. τοὺς ὁπλίτᾶς μεταπεπέμμεθα ἐκ τῆς Φρυγίᾱς

1. Have they been left behind, the thirty bowmen? 2. At the same time you were sent, O Proxenius, to the bridge. 3. Cut down by the enemy the army has been. 4. One Thousand hoplites were sent down to the sea. 5. A few of Cyrus's friends had been left behind. 6. Left behind they had been, the soldiers. 7. Out of the village the messenger was sent to Cyrus. 8. The trees have been cut down. 9. Cyrus sent away the messenger. 10. The hoplites we sent for, out of Phrygia.

1. The army had been cut to pieces by the satrap.
2. Twenty bowman had been left behind in the plain.
3. A letter had been written at the same time.
Note: For the order, compare 213, 2.
4. A messenger has been sent away to the satrap.
5. For a thousand soldiers had been sent to the stronghold.

1. ἡ στρατια κατακέκοπτω ἠν τῶν σατραπην. 2. εἴκοσι τοξοται καταλελειμμενοι ἐν τῶν πεδιων. 3. ἐπὶστολη ἁμα ἐγεγραπτο. 4. ἀνγγελος αποπέμπται πρὸς τὸν σατραπην. 5. γὰρ χιλιοι στρατιῶται πέμπεμμενοι ἐπὶ τὸ ἰσχῡρόν χωπιον.

S215. A Thirty Day's Halt, and Enumeration of the troops.
ἔστι δὲ καὶ Ἀρταξέρξου βασίλεια ἐν Κελαιναῖς ἐρυμνὰ ἐπὶ ταῖς
πηγαῖς τοῦ Μαρσύου ποταμοῦ. ῥει δὲ καὶ οὗτος διὰ Κελαινῶν.
ἐνταῦθα μένει Κῦρος ἡμέρᾱς τριάκοντα˙ καὶ ἧκε Κλέαρχος ἔχων
ὁπλίτας χῑλίους καὶ πελταστὰς καὶ τοξότᾱς. ἅμα δὲ καὶ Σοφαίνετος
παρῆν ἔχων ὁπλίτᾱς χῑλίους. καὶ ἐνταῦθα Κῦρος ἀριθμὸν τῶν
Ἑλληνικῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐποίησεν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ, καὶ ἦσαν
ὁπλῖται μὲν μύριοι καὶ χίλιοι, πελτασταὶ δὲ δισχίλιοι.

ἔστι- For the accent, see 166, 1.
δισχίλιοι - The numeral adverb δις means twice.

And there is Artaxerxes's palace in Celaenae from which flows the source
of the Marsyus River. This river also flows thru Celaenae. In this place
Cyrus remained for thirty days; Clearchus arrived with one thousand
hoplites, peltasts and bowmen. At the same time Sophaenetus was
there with a thousand hoplites. And in this place, Cyrus a count of the
Greek soldiers he made, in the park, and there were on the one hand
11,000 hoplites, and on the other hand 2,000 peltasts.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 23


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin