Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXI - Indicative Passive

S192. In the passive (48) voice, the subject is represented as acted on, as λύομαι, I am loosed, ἐλῡόμην, I was loosed, etc.

S193. The present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect have the same forms in the passive voice as in the middle. The first aorist and first future are different.

S194. Learn the conjugation of the first aorist and first future indicative passive of λύω in 770 (ἐλύθην and λυθήσομαι).

S195. The first aorist passive uses the first passive stem, formed by adding the tense suffix θε (lengthened to θη in the indicative) to the verb stem, as λυθε (λυθη). As a secondary tense, it has augment in the indicative. It uses the active secondary endings (145).

S196. Before the suffix θε, a labial mute (π β φ) becomes (or remains) φ as ἐ-πέμφ-θην (verb stem πεμπ); a palatal mute (κ γ χ) becomes (or remains χ, as ἤχ-θην (verb stem αγ); a lingual mute (τ δ θ) becomes σ, as ἐπείσ-θην (verb stem πειθ), ἡρπάσ-θην (verb stem ἁρπαδ).

S197. Some verbs form the aorist passive with the tense suffix ε (lengthened to η in the indicative) instead of θε (θη), as γράφω, write (verb stem γραφ), ἐ-γράφη-ν. These are called SECOND aorist passive.

S198. The first future passive uses the first passive stem with σο/ε added to θη, as λυθησο/ε. It uses the middle primary endings (175).

S199. The PRINCIPLE PARTS of a verb are the first person singular indicative of the following tenses: present active, future active, aorist active, perfect active, perfect middle, aorist passive, as λύω, λύσω, ἔλῡσα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην.

S200. The second aorist active (91), second perfect (115), and second aorist passive (197) may occur in place of the corresponding first tenses or in addition to them.

S201. Not all verbs have all the principle parts, that is, some verbs are defective. In the following vocabularies, if parts are not given, it is understood that they do not occur in Attic prose.

S202. The agent is usually expressed, in the passive construction, by ὑπό with the genitive, as οἱ ὁπλῖται ὑπὸ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ πεμφθήσονται, the heavy-armed men will be sent by the general.

S203. The perfect and pluperfect passive may have the dative of the agent, as αἱ σπονδαὶ τοῖς πολεμίοις λέλυται, the treaty has been broken by the enemy.

S204. Vocabulary.
γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέ-γραμμαι, ἐγράφην, write.
δή, intensive postpositive particle, now, indeed, accordingly, so, then.
εἴκοσι, indeclinable, twenty.
ἐνταῦθεν, adverb, thence, from this place.
ἑπτά, indeclinable, seven.
ἥκω, ἥξω, come, be or have come.
παρασάγγης, ου, ὁ, Persian road measure.
πιέζω (πιεδ), πιέσω, ἐπίεσα, ἐπιέσθην, press hard, passive, be hard pressed.
ὑπό, preposition: with genitive, under, from under; of agency, by, through; with dative, under, beneath; with accusative, under, down under.

1. λύθησόμεθα ἐκ τούτων τῶν δεινῶν.
Note: δεινων, used as a neuter noun.
2. ἐν δὲ τῇ στενῇ ὁδῷ ἐπιέσθημεν ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων.
3. λέγεται ἄγγελος ἥκειν παρὰ Δαρείου.
4. οὕτω δὴ μετεπέμφθησαν οἱ τοξόται.
5. ἐδιώκοντο διὰ τοῦ πεδίου παρασάγγας ἑπτά.
6. ἐπιστολὴ ἐγράφη παρὰ τὸν Κλέαρχον.
7. ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν διηρπάσθη ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων τὰ ὅπλα.
8. ἐπὶ τῷ δεξιῷ ἐτοξεύθησαν ὁπλῖται εἴκοσιν.
Note: ἐπὶ τῶν δεξιῳ on the right (wing). Note: for εἴκοσιν see 17.
9. ἐντεῦθεν πεμφθήσονται ὑπὸ Κύρου εἰς Φρυγίαν.

1. We will be freed from these dangers. 2. On the narrow road, we were hard pressed by the enemy. 3. The messenger is reported to have come from Darius. 4. And in this way the bowmen were summoned. 5. They were pursued through the plain for seven parasangs. 6. A letter was written for Clearchus. 7. From the villages, the weapons were siezed by the barbarians. 8. On the right wing, they were struck by arrows, twenty of the hoplites. 9. From there, they will be sent by Cyrus to Phrygia.

1. Twenty heavy-armed men were brought from this place.
Note: For brought, use ἄγω. Note: from this place, Put the Greek word for this phrase first. compare, 205, 9.
2. The bridge will be destroyed.
3. He was persuaded by the general.
4. Five targeteers on the right (wing) were shot.
5. They will be hard pressed by the soldiers.

1. ἐντεύθεν ἠχθησαν ὁπλῖται εἴκοσιν. 2. ἡ γεδυρα λύθησεται. 3. ἐπεισθε ὑπὸ τοῦ στρατηγου. 4. ἐτοξεύθησαν πελτασταὶ πέντε ἐπὶ τῶν δεξιῷ. 5. πιεσθησανται ὑπο τῶν στρατιωτῶν.

S207. The Palace and Park of Cyrus at Celaenae.
ἐνταῦθα Κῦρος μέναι ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά˙ καὶ ἧκε Μένων ὁ Θετταλὸς
ὁπλίτᾱς ἔχων καὶ πελταστάς. ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει παρασάγγας
εἴκοσιν εἰς Κελαινάς. ἐνταῦθα Κύρῳ βασίλεια ἦν καὶ παράδεισος.
ἐν δὲ τούτῳ ἦν ἄγρια θηρία˙ ταῦτα ἐκεῖνος ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου.
οὕτω γὰρ ἐγύμναζε τοὺς ἵππους. διὰ δὲ τοῦ παραδείσου ῥει
Μαίανδρος ποταμόs˙ αἱ δὲ πηγαὶ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν ἐκ τῶν βασιλείων˙
ῥει δὲ καὶ διὰ Κελαινῶν.

ἡμέρᾱς: accusative of extent of time (836).
ῥει, by contraction for ῥεει, from ῥεω, flow.

In that place Cyrus remained for seven days. And Menon the Thessalian
arrived with hoplites and peltasts. From there he marched twenty parasangs
to Celaenae. In this place Cyrus had a palace and a park. In it were wild
beasts, which he would hunt on horseback. In this manner he exercised
the horses. Thru the park flowed the Meander River, which originated
from a spring within the palace and flows thru Celaenae.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 22


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin