Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XX - Aorist, Perfect, Pluperfect and Future Perfect Indicative Middle

S182. The future perfect indicative denotes that an action will be already finished at some future time, as λελύσομαι, I shall be ransomed. This tense is not found in the active voice.

S183. Learn the conjugation of the first aorist, perfect, pluperfect and future perfect indicative middle of λύω in 767 (λελύσαμεην) and 769 (λελύμαι, ἐλελύμην, and λελύσομαι). (The perfect, and pluperfect middle and passive of mute verbs are reserved for lessons XXII and XXIII.)

S184. The first aorist middle uses the first aorist stem λῡσα (148).

S185. The perfect, and pluperfect middle use the perfect middle stem λελυ, formed simply by reduplicating the verb stem. The pluperfect has augment.

S186. The future perfect uses the perfect middle stem with σο/ε added, λελύσο/ε. A short final vowel is always lengthened before σο/ε.

S187. For the personal endings, see 175. The forms ἐλῡσω and λελῡσει are shortened forms of ἐλῡσα-σο and λελῡσε-σαι.


S188. Vocabulary.
ἄκρος, ᾱ, ον, at the top, topmost; ἄκρον, neuter, as noun, summit.
ἀπὸπέμπω, send off or away; middle, send away from oneself, dismiss.
ἡδέως, adverb, gladly.
ὀλίγος, η, ον, little, small, plural, few
ὅλος, η, ον, whole, entire.
παρά, preposition: with genitive, from beside, from; with dative, beside, with, at
παρασκευή, ῆς, ἡ, preparation, equipment.
πάρειμι, be beside or present.
παύω, παύσω, ἔπαυσα, πέπαυκα, πέπαυμαι, cause to cease, stop; middle, cease, desist.
πέντε, indeclinable, five.
σταθμός, οῦ, ὁ, stopping place, stage, one day's march.
Φρυγίᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ, Phrygia.

1. πεπόρευνται παρὰ τὸν Κῦρον.
2.οὗτος τοῦ πρὸς τοὺς βάρβαρους πολέμου ἡδέως πεπαύσεται.
Note: πολεμου from war, a genitive of separation.
3. τὸν τε στρατηγὸν καὶ τὸν σατράπην ἀπεπέμψατο.
4. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἐπεπόρευντο σταθμοὺς πέντε διὰ φιλίᾱς χώρᾱς.
Note: σταθμοὺς Accusative of extent of space (836).
5. ὀλίγοι τῶν στρατιωτῶν τὰ ἐπιτήδεια ἠγοράσαντο.
6. οἱ ὁπλῖται πεπόρευνται ἐπὶ τὸ ἄκρον.
7. καὶ ὁ σατράπης μετεπέμψατο ἵππους καὶ ὅπλα καὶ τὴν ἄλλην παρασκευὴν εἰς Φρυγίᾱν.
8. οἱ πολέμιοι οὐκ ἐπαύσαντο τῆς κραυγῆς διὰ ὅλης τῆς ἡμέρᾱς.
9. ἐπεὶ δὲ καὶ οὗτοι παρῆσαν, ἐστρατεύσατο Κῦρος εἰς τὴν τῶν πολεμίων χώρᾱν.

1. They were proceeded to Cyrus. 2. He will gladly cease from war with the barbarians. 3. The general and the satrap he had dispatched. 4. The soldiers had marched five stadia (days march) through friendly territory. 5. Few of the soldiers bought their provisions at the market. 6. The hoplites have proceeded to the heights. 7. And the satrap sent horses, arms and other equipment to Phrygia. 8. The enemy did not pause from shouting all day. 9. And when the others arrived, they left on an expedition with Cyrus into hostile land.

1. Cyrus summoned few of the captains.
2. They have proceded to the sources of the river.
3. He has consulted with Cyrus.
4. You will gladly have ceased from battle.
5. The army had advanced five days' march.

1. Κῦρος μεταπεμψατο ὀλγους τῶν λοχαγων. 2. πεπορεύνται ἐπὶ τοῦ ποταμοῦ πηγας. 3. συμβουλεύται τῷ κυρῳ. 4. τὴς μάχης ἡδέως πεπαυσεθε. 5. οἱ στρατιως εχελαυν σταθμοὺς πέντε.

S191. Tissaphernes warns the King.
οὗτοι μὲν παρῆσαν αὐτῷ εἰς Σάρδεις. Τισσαφέρνης δὲ ἐπορεύτο παρὰ τὸν ἀρταξέρξην˙
οὐ γὰρ ἐνόμιζε τὴν παρασκευὴν ταύτην εἶναι ἐπὶ Πῑσίδᾱς. καὶ Ἀρταξέρξης, ἐπεὶ ταῦτ᾽
ἔλεξε Τισσαφέρνης, ἀντὶπαρασκευάζεται.
Κῦρος δὲ ἔχων τούτους τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ἐξελαύνει ἀπὸ Σάρδεων διὰ τῆς Λῡδίᾱς
σταθμοὺς τρεῖς ἐπὶ τὸν Μαίανδρον ποταμόν. ἐπὶ δὲ τούτῳ γέφῡρα ἐπῆν. ἐντεῦθεν
ἐξελαύνει διὰ Φυργίᾱς εἰς Κολοσσάς.

Σάρδεις : Sardis, accusative plural. The genitive plural Σαρδεων occurs in 6.
εἶναι: to be, present infinitive of εἰμί. Translate, that it was, etc.
ἔχων: having, present participle = with.
ἐπ-ῆν: imperfect of ἔπ-ειμι, be on or over.
ἐξ-ελαύνει: the verb ἐλαυνω here means march.

Thus indeed they arrived to him at Sardis. Tissaphernes was proceding to Artaxerxes,
for he knew that these preparations were not against Pisidia. And Artaxerxes
heard what Tissaphernes said, and was making preparations against them.
Cyrus with these soldiers marched from Sardis thru Lydia, three stadia, to the
Meander river. Here a bridge crossed over the river. From there they marched through
Phryigia in Collossae.


See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 21


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin