Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XIX - Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Middle

S174. In the middle (48) voice, the subject is represented as acting: On himself, as πορεύω, make go, middle, make oneself go, proceed, πείθω, persuade, middle, persuade oneself, trust, obey.

2. For himself, as ἀγοράζω, buy, middle, buy for oneself; μεταπέμπω, send after, middle, send for a person or thing to come to oneself, summon, send for; στρατεύω, make war, middle, take the field, march.

3. On something belonging to himself, as λύω, loose, middle, lose one's own, ransom; ἄγω, bring, middle, bring one's own.

S175. The personal endings (136) in the indicative middle are:

1. -μαι -μεθα
2. -σαι -σθε
3. -ται -νται
2. -σθον
3. -σθον

1. -μην -μεθα
2. -σο -σθε
3. -τὸ -ντο
2. -σθον
3. -σθην

S176. Learn the conjugation of the present imperfect, and the future indicative middle of λύω, in 765 (λύομαι and ἐλύομην) and 766 (λύσομαι).

S177. The present stem, found in the present and imperfect, is λῡσο/ε (138 and 147), the future stem is λῡσο/ε (139). The forms λύει, ἐλύου, and λύσει, are the shortened forms of λῡε-σαι, ἐλῡε-σο and λῡσε-σαι.-σαι.

S178. Vocabulary.
ἀγοράζω, (ἀγοραδ), αγοράσω, ἠγόρασα, ἠγόρακα, (compare ἀγορά), frequent the market-place, buy.
ἀλήθεια, ᾱς, ἡ, truth.
βαρβαρικός, ή, όν, (compare βάρβαρος), barbarian; τὸ βαρβαρικόν, the Persian force of Cyrus.
ἕτοιμος, ἡ, ον, or ος, ον, (130) ready, prepared.
μετὰπέμπομαι, send for, summon.
πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικα, persuade, middle, obey.
πέρᾱν, adverb, across, beyond.
πιστεύω, πιστεύσω, ἐπίστευσα, (compare πιστός) put faith in, trust.
πορεύομαι, πορεύσομαι, πεπόρευμαι, proceed.
συμβουλεύω, plan with, advise, middle, consult with.
συστρατεύομαι, serve in war with, take the field with.

1. συστρατεύσεται σὺν Κύρῳ˙ πιστεύει γὰρ αὐτῷ.
The dative of the indirect object follows verbs to signify to trust and to obey.(860)
2. οὐκ ἐπείθον τοῖς θεοῖς.
3. τῇ δ᾽ ἀληθείᾳ ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν.
Note: rē vērā, dative of manner. (866) Abstract nouns in Greek often take the article.
4. Ἀρταξέρξης τὴν στρατιὰν ἄξεται.
5. τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ἕτοιμοί ἐσμεν λύεσθαι.
Note: to ransom, present infinitive middle, ending in εσθαι.
6. Κῦρος δὲ μεταπέμπεται τὸ βαρβαρικόν.
7. διὰ τοῦ πεδίου ἐπορευόμεθα εἰς κώμᾱς.
8. Κῦρος δὲ τοῖς στρατηγοῖς καὶ τοῖς λοχᾱγοῖς συμβουλεύεται.
9. πέρᾱν δὲ τοῦ εὐφράτου ἦν κώμη˙ ἐκ ταύτης οἱ στρατιῶται ἠγοράζοντο τὰ ἐπὶτήδεια.
Note: Adverbs of place may be followed by the genitive (856).

1. He will take the field (or serve in war) with Cyrus, for he trusts in him. 2. You did not obey the gods. 3. For in truth they were proceeding to the river. 4. Artaxerxes the army he himself will lead. 5. Of the soldiers, prepared we are to ransom them. 6. Cyrus he sent for the Persian contingent of his soldiers. 7. Through the plain we proceeding into the village. 8. Cyrus the generals and the garrison commanders he consulted with. 9. Beyond the Euphrates was a village. Out of this the soldiers bought their provisions.

1. And he was proceeding on the wagon.
2. The bowmen sent for their bows.
3. He did not obey his brother.
4. you did not proceed to Cyrus.
5. The targeteers will purchase provisions for themselves.

1. καὶ ἐπορευετο δ᾽ ἐπὶ τῶν ἁμαξων. 2. οἱ τοξοται μεταπέμπονται τὰ τοξα. 3. οὐκ ἐπειθετο τὸν αδελφον. 4. οὐκ ἐπορευεoυ πρὸς τὸν Κῦρον. 5. οἱ πελτασταὶ ἀγορασονται τὰ ἐπὶτηδια.

S181. All his troops muster at Sardis.
ἐπεὶ δ᾽ ἕτοιμος ἦν Κῦρος πορεύεσθαι ἄνω, λέγει μὲν ὅτι στρατεύεται
ἐπὶ Πῑσίδᾱς˙ τῇ δ᾽ ἀληθείᾳ ἐπὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐπορεύετο. καὶ ἀθροίζει
ὡς (as if ) ἐπὶ τούτος τὸ τε βαρβαρικὸν καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικόν. ἐνταῦθα καὶ
κελεύει τόν τε Κλέαρχον ἥκειν καὶ τὸν Ἀρίστιππον ἀποπέμπειν εἰς Λῡδίᾱν
τοὺς ἐν Θετταλίᾳ στρατιώτᾱς. ἐκέλευσε δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ξένους
συστρατεύεσθαι. οἱ δὲ ἐπείθοντο˙ ἐπίστευον γὰρ αὐτῷ.

And when Cyrus was ready to proceed up country, he said he was making an expedition
against the people of Pisidia, but in truth he was proceeding against his brother. And he gathers
them as if against these, both his Persian force and his Greek force. Then he
orders Clearchus to come and for Aristippus to send to Lydia
the soldiers that were in Thessaly. He commanded the other mercenaries to join
the expedition. And they obeyed, for they trusted him.


See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 20


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin