Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XVIII - Present and Imperfect Indicative of εἰμι, be.

S165. Learn the conjugation of the present and imperfect indicative of εἰμι, be, in 795.

S166. All the forms of the present indicative of εἰμι are enclitic except εἰ.
The third singular ἐστι takes ν-movable (17) like words in σι. Further, ἐστί becomes ἐστι:

1. At the beginning of a sentence, as ἐστι δὲ Κύρῳ βασιλεια, Cyrus has a palace.

2. When it signifies existence or possibility, ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις ἔστιν οὔτω λέγειν. it is possible to speak thus among the barbarians.

3. When it follows οὐκ, εἰ, ὡς, καὶ, τοῦτο, and some other words, as οὐκ ἔστι Κύρῳ πλοῖα. Cyrus has no boats.

S167. Proclitics (26) have no effect on the accent of the following word. The proclitics are forms ὁ, ἡ, οἱ, αἱ of the article; the prepositions εἰς, into, ἐξ, (ἐκ) out of, ἐν, in; the conjunctions εἰ, if, and ὡς, as, that; and the negative οὐ, (οὐκ, οὐχ), not.

S168. An enclitic(27) generally loses its own accent, but in the following cases, it retains it:

1. When a dissyllabic enclitic follows a word with the acute on the penult, as φίλοι ἐστέ, you are friends.

2. When the preceding syllable is elided (16), as ταῦτ ἐστὶ κακά, this is bad.

S169. The word before an enclitic always retains its own accent, and never changes an acute to the grave (25). Further :

1. If it has the acute on the antepenult or circumflex on the penult, it receives from the enclitic and acute on its last syllable as a second accent, as ἄξιόν ἐστι, it is right, ἀγαθὸς οὖτός ἐστι, he is brave.

2. If it has the acute on the penult or the acute or circumflex on the ultima, it receives no additional accent, as ξένοι ἐσμέν (168,1) we are friends, κακοί ἐστε, you are cowards, τῶν στρατιωτῶν τινὲς, some of the soldiers.

3. If it is a proclitic or enclitic, it receives and acute, as εἴ τίς, if anybody; εἴ τίς φησι (enclitic) ταῦτα if anybody says this.

S170. Vocabulary.
βασίλειος, ον, (130) royal; neuter plural; βασίλεια as a noun, palace.
εἰμί, imperfect ἦν, future ἔσομαι, be.
ἐνταῦθα, adverb, there, here, in this place.
ἤ, conjunction, than, Latin, quam.
Μαίανδρος, ου, ὁ, the Maeander, a winding river in Asia Minor.
μᾶλλον, adverb, more, rather.
μύριοι, αι, α, 10,000
παράδεισος, ου, ὁ, park.
πάραδος, ου, ἡ, way by or along, passage, pass.
πηγή, ῆς, ἡ, fountain, head, spring, source.

1. εἶ ἐπὶ (in the power of ) τῷ αδελφῷ.
2. οὐκ ἄξιον ἐστι τὰς σπονδὰς λύειν.
3. ἐνταῦθα γάρ ἐστιν ἡ πάραδος στενή.
4. Κύρῳ μᾶλλον φίλοι ἐστὲ ἢ τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
5. ἦμεν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.
6. Κλεάρχῳ δὲ μύριοι δᾱρεικοί εἰσι.
7. ξένοι ἐσμέν, ὦ Κῦρε, τῷ σατράπῃ.
8. αἱ δὲ πηγαὶ τοῦ Μαιάνδρου ποταμοῦ εἰσιν ἐκ τῶν βασιλείων.
9. Κύρῳ ἐστέ, ὦ στρατιῶται, καὶ φίλοι καὶ σύμμαχοι.
10. ἔστι δὲ Κύρῳ καὶ βασίλεια καὶ χωρίον ἰσχῡρὸν ἐπὶ ταῖς τοῦ ποταμοῦ πηγαῖς.

1. You are in the power of your brother. 2. Not right it was the truce to break. 3. In this place there is a passage narrow. 4. For to Cyrus more of a friend yous are than to his brother. 5. We were in the park. 6. Clearchus 10,000 dariks he has. 7. Strangers (or Guests) we are, O Cyrus, to the satrap. 8. The spring (or source) of the Maeander River it flows out of the palace. 9. For Cyrus yous are, O soldiers, both friends and allies (of his). 10. And Cyrus has both a castle and a stronghold on the river source.

1. This country is hostile to Artaxerxes.
2. The soldiers have arms and horses.
3. The friends of Cyrus were soldiers.
4. For you are in a hostile land.
5. In this place there was a beautiful park.

1. αὑτη χωρα πολεμια ἀρταξέρξῃ ἐστι. 2. οἱ στρατιῶται ὁπλον καὶ ἵπποι ἔχουσι. 3. οἱ φίλοι Κύρου στρατιῶται ησαν. 4. εἰ γὰρ ἐν χορᾳ πολεμίᾳ. 5. ἐνταῦθα ἦν παραδεισος καλος.

S173. He continues to collect Forces.
ἄλλους δὲ στρατιώτᾱς Κύρῳ ἤθροιζε Κλέαρχος ὁ Λακεδαιμόνιος
ἐν Χερρονήσῳ˙ τούτῳ γὰρ ὡς (as) φίλῳ παρέσχε μῡρίους δᾱρεικούς.
Ἀρίστιππος δὲ ὁ Θετταλὸς ξένος ἦν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἐν θετταλίᾳ στρατιὰν
ἤθροιζεν. ἐκέλευσε δὲ καὶ Πρόξενοn καὶ Σοφαίνετον μετὰ τῶν
ἄλλων στρατηγῶν στρατεύειν˙ καὶ ἐποίουν οὕτως οὗτοι.

παρέσχε: second aorist (91) of παρ-έχω hold beside or near, furnish,
give. The preposition παρά signifies beside. The accent of a compound
verb cannot go further back than the augment.

ἐποίουν: by contraction for ἐποίεον, third plural imperfect indicative
active of ποιέω, do.

Clearchus the Lacedaemonian was gathering the rest of the soldiers for Cyrus
in the Chersonese; for this friend Cyrus had given 10,000 darics. Aristippus
the thessalian was a guest of his, and in Thessaly was gathering soldiers.
He ordered Proxenus and Sophaenetus with others to make an expedition,
and they did in this manner.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 19


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin