Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XVII - Demonstrative Pronouns -αὐτός.

S154. The principle demonstrative pronouns are:
οὗτος this, Latin, hic,
ὅδε this.
ἐκεῖνος that, Latin, ille.

S155. The pronoun αὐτός is properly intensive, self, Latin ipse.

S156. Learn the declension of οὗτος, ὅδε, and ἐκεῖνος in 762, and of αὐτός in 759.

S157. These pronouns are declined, in the main, like the adjectives of the vowel declension (126 following); ὅδε is declined like the article (758), with the enclitic suffix δὲ added.

S158. When a demonstrative pronoun agrees with a noun, it takes the article and stands either before or after both article and noun, not between them.

1. ἐκεῖνος, that, (yonder) is used of something remote; ὅδε, this (here), of something near and present.
2. οὗτος is used in referring to something which has already been mentioned; ὅδε, in referring to something which is about to be mentioned.

οὗτος ὁ στρατηγὸς or ὁ στρατηγὸς οὗτος ἀγαθὸς ἦν. This general (one already mentioned) was brave.
ἔλεξε τάδε, he said this, i.e. he spoke as follows.
ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ κώμῃ θύσομεν, we will offer sacrifice in that village. (yonder).

S160. In all its cases, αὐτός may mean self; when preceded by the article, it means same; in its oblique cases it may mean him, her, it, them.

αὑτος ὁ στρατηγὸς ἔλεξε ταῦτα. This general himself said this;

but, ὁ αὐτὸς στρατηγὸς ἔλεξε ταῦτα, the same general said this;

θύσω αὐτός, I myself will offer sacrifice;

οἱ στριῶται αὐτοὺς ἔπαιον, the soldiers struck them.

S161. Vocabulary.
Ἀρίστιππος, ου, ὁ, Aristippus
αὐτός, ή, ό, pronoun, self, same, him, her, it.
ἐκεῖνος, η, ο, pronoun, that. (used for something that is remote)
ἐπὶβουλή, ῆς, ἡ, compare (ἐοιβουλεύω), plot, scheme, design.
Θετταλός, οῦ, ὁ, a Thassalian.
λέγω, λέξω, ἔλεξα, (λόγος), say, speak, tell, state, report.
μετά, preposition, with genitive, with, in company with, with accusative, behind, after.
ξένος, ου, ὁ, stranger, guest friend, guest, host.
ὅδε, ἥδε, τόδε, (compare ὧδε) pronoun, this, the following. (Used when referring to something which is about to be mentioned.)
οὗτος, αὑτη, τοῦτο, (compare οὕτως) pronoun, this (for something previously mentioned.)
τέ, conjunction, and (enclitic and postpositive). τε . . . καὶ, both . . . . and.


1. αὗται αἱ οἰκίαι θύρᾱς ἔχουσι.
2. οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται ἔπαιον τὸν ξένον.
3. ἀρίστιππος δὲ ὁ Θετταλὸς ξένος ἦν αὐτῷ.
4. μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Κλέαρχος αὐτὸς ἔλεξε τάδε.
5. καὶ ἤθροιζον τοὺς πελταστὰς οὕτως οὗτοι.
6. τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα βουλεύουσι.
note: τὰ αὐτὰ ταῦτα, these same (plans), a cognate accusative (833).
7. καὶ κελεύει αὐτοὺς λέγειν ταῦτα.
8. αὕτη ἡ ἐπὶβουλὴ οὐκ ἦν φανερά.
9. οὗτος δὲ ὁ αὐτὸς κελεύει ἐκείνους ἁρπάζειν τὴν χώρᾱν.
10. ταῦτα ἔλεξε Κλέαρχος˙ οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται, οἱ τὲ αὐτοῦ ἐκείνου καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι, ἐκέλευον αὐτὸν ἄγειν τὴν στρατιάν.
Note: οἱ τὲ both the (soldiers). The proclitic οἱ receives and accent from the following enclitic. αὐτοῦ agrees with ἐκείνου and equals Latin genitive
singular ipsius, of himself

1. These houses themselves have doors. 2. These soldiers have struck the guest. 3. Aristippus the Thassalian was a stranger to him. 4. Afterward Clearchus himself spoke thus. 5. And (I/they) gathered the slingers in this manner. 6. These same things they are planning. 7. And he commanded them to speak thus. (say these things) 8. This plot was in secret. 9. This he himself commanded that the place be plundered. 10. Thus spoke Clearchus: But the Soldiers, both of these soldiers and other ones, commanded him to lead the army.

1. These soldiers were friendly.
2. Cyrus sent these soldiers their pay.
3. But the general spoke to them as follows.
4. They conduct him to the same general.

1. οὑτοι οἱ στρατιῶται φιλιοι ἦσαν. 2. Κῦρος ἐπεμψε τοῦτοις τοῖς στρατιώτας τὸν μισθὸν. 3. ὁ δὲ στρατεγος ἐλεξε ταδε. 4. ἀγουσι αὐτον πρὸς τὸν αὐτον στρατηγον.

S164. He hoodwinks the King.
οὕτως οὖν ἐπὶ Μίλητον τὴν στρατιὰν ἤθροιζεν ὁ Κῦρος.
πρὸς δὲ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἀγγέλους ἔπεμψε καὶ ἔλεξε τάδε˙
"ἐπὶθῡμῶ, ὠ Ἀρταξέρξη, καὶ (also) τῆς Ἰωνίᾱς σατραπεύειν,
Τισσαφέρνην δ᾽ ἐκ τῆς χώρᾱς ἐκβάλλειν." καὶ ἡ μήτηρ
συμπράττει αὐτῷ ταῦτα. ὥστε οὐκ ὑποπτεύει ὁ Ἀρταξέρξης
τὴν τοῦ Κύρου ἐπὶβουλήν˙ ἀπέπέμπε γὰρ αὐτῷ τοὺς δασμοὺς

ἐπὶθῡμῶ : by contraction for ἐπὶθῡμέω I desire
Ἰωνίᾱς : the genitive follows verbs signifying to rule (847).
συμπράττει : does this with him, i.e. cooperates with him in this (865).

So thus, against Miletus, Cyrus was collecting his army.
And he sent messengers to his brother and said: "I desire,
O, Artaxerxes, also to be satrap of Ionia and to throw Tissaphernes
out of the country." His mother also cooperates with him
in this. And so Artaxerxes does not suspect Cyrus' plan; for he
(Cyrus) was sending tribute to him (Artaxerxes).


See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 18


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin