Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XVI - Analysis of the Secondary Tenses of the Indicative Active

S145. The personal endings of the secondary (50) tenses in the active voice are:

1. -μεν
2. -τε
3. - -ν or σαν
2. -τον
3. -την

S146. Review the conjugation of the imperfect, first aorist, and first pluperfect indicative of λύω in 765 (ελύον) 767 (ελύσα), and 768 (ελελύκη).

S147. The imperfect is formed on the augmented present stem (138).

S148. The first aorist stem of λύω is λύσα, formed by adding the tense suffix σα to the verb stem. The aorist has augment. The first person singular, ν is dropped and in the third α is changed to ε.

S149. The first pluperfect is formed on the first pluperfect stem (140), with κε for κα. In the singular ν is dropped and κε appears as κη, κη, κει.

S150. Vocabulary.
ἄλλος, ἄλλη, ἅλλο, other, another; with the article, the other, the rest of.
δασμός, οῦ, ὁ, tax, tribute.
ἱκανός, ή, όν, sufficient, able, capable.
λοχᾱγός, οῦ, ὁ, captain.
οὖν, conjunction, therefore, then, so (a postpositive).
σπονδή, ῆς, ἡ, libation; plural, truce
συμπέμπω, send with.
τοξεύω, ἐτόξευσα, (compare τόξον, τοξότης), use one's bow, shoot.
φρούραρχος, ου, ὁ, commander of a garrison.
ὧδε, adverb, thus, as follows.

1. τὸν φρούραρχον επεπαίκεσαν.
2. Κῦρος οὖν τῷ αδελφῷ κακὸν ἐβούλευεν.
(κακόν, evil, neuter singular of κακός, used as a noun.)
3. οἱ νεᾱνίαι τόξα μακρὰ ἤχεσαν καὶ σφενδόνᾱς αγαθάς.
4. καὶ ὁ στρατηγὸς ἐστράτευσαν ἐπὶ τὴν τοῦ σατράπου χώρᾱν.
5. συνεπέμπομεν τῷ στρατηγῷ ἄλλους στρατιώτᾱς ἀγαθούς.
6. ἐπεὶ ἔλῡσαν τὰς σπονδας, τὰς κώμᾱς διαρπάσομεν.
7. οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι ἐτόξευσαν ἀπὸ τῶν ἵππον.
8. τὸν λοχᾱγὸν ὧδε ἦγον πρὸς τὸν Κλέαρχον.
9. ὁ γὰρ ἀρταξέρξης εκεκελεύκει τὸν σατράπην δασμοὺς πέμπειν.
10. στρατιώτᾱς ἐν τῷ ἰσχῡρῷ χωρίῳ εἴχετε ἱκανοὺς τὰς κώμας διαρπάζειν.
(διαρπάζειν - Dependent on ἱκανους enough to plunder.)

1. The commander of the garrison they had struck. 2. Cyrus therefore his brother he was plotting evil against. 3. The young men bows large they had and slings good. 4. And the general was exploring since the country of the satrap. 5. We were sending with the general the rest of the soldiers brave. 6. Since they broke the truce, we will plunder the villages. 7. The barbarians using bows shot from their horses. 8. The captain thus I was leading to Clearchus. 9. For Artaxerxes had ordered the satrap the tributes he must send. 10. Yous have enough soldiers in the fortress to plunder the villages.
Soldiers in the stronghold, yous have, enough for the villages to plunder.

1. I had collected hoplites and bowmen as follows.
2. They planned evil for the others.
3. The hoplites with Cyrus were plundering the wagons.
4. Both generals and captains had sacrificed.
5. He bade the satrap send gifts.

1. ἠθροικη ὁπλίτᾶς καὶ τοχοτης ὧδε. 2. ἐβουλουσαν κακον τοῖς αλλοις. 3. οἱ ὁπλῖται συν Κύρῳ ἁρπάζον τὰς ἅμαξας. 4. καὶ στρατεγων κια λοχογων ἐτεθυκεσαν. 5. ἐκελευσε τὸν σατραπην δορα πέμπειν.

S153. Cyrus begins to take Active Measures.
τὴν δὲ στρατιὰν τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ὧδε ἤθροιζε˙ τοὺς τῶν φυλακῶν
φρουράρχους κελεύει ἀθροίζειν στρατιώτας Πελοποννησίους˙
ἐνόμιζε γάρ, ὡς (as) ἔλεγε, Τισσαφέρνην ἐπὶβουλεύειν τῇ ἀρχῇ.
καὶ ἡ μὲν ἄλλη ἰωνίᾱ τότε τῷ Κύρῳ φιλίᾱ καὶ πιστὴ ἦν, Μίλητος
δὲ πολεμίᾱ. Κῦρος οὖν τὴν Μίλητον πολιορκεῖ καὶ κατὰ (by) γῆν (land)
καὶ κατὰ θάλατταν.

Τισσαφερνην ἐπὶβουλεύειν - translate that Tissaphernes was plotting against.
μὲν, post-positive particle, never used as a conjunction to connect words and sentences, but to distinguish the word or clause with which it stands from something that is to follow, and commonly answered by δὲ (sometimes by αλλα, μεντοι) in the corresponding clause, on the one hand, indeed, truly but often it is not to be translated, and its presence is to be shown merely by stress of voice;
ὁ μὲν . . . ὁ δὲ, the one, the other, plural, some . . . others, 815; αλλα μὲν, but certainly.

πολιορκει - by contraction for πολιορκεει, present third singular of πολιορκεω, besiege.

So the army of the Greeks thus he was gathering: The garrison
commanders he ordered to gather the Peloponesian soldiers;
For he believed, as he said, Tissaphernes was plotting against his satrapy
And indeed while the rest of Ionia was friendly and faithful to Cyrus, Militus
was hostile to him. Cyrus so then Militus he besieged by land
and by sea.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 17


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin