Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XV - Analysis of the Primary Tenses of the Indicative Active

S135.To the verb stem (54) different TENSE SUFFIXES are added to form the TENSE STEMS of the verb, as λύω, stem λύ, present tense suffix ο or ε (for convenience written ο/ε), present tense stem λύο or λύε (λύο/ε).

S136. To form the complete tenses, PERSONAL ENDINGS are added to the different tense stems. These distinguish the different persons of the verb. The personal endings of the primary (50) tenses in the active voice are:

1. -μι -μὲν
2. -σ(σι) -τε
3. -σι(τί) -νσι
2. -τὸν
3. -τὸν

S137. Review the conjugation of the present, future and first perfect indicative active of λύω in 765 (λύω) 766 (λύσω), and 768 (λελύκα).

S138. The present stem of λύω is λύο/ε (135); λύο occurs before μ or ν in the endings, elsewhere λύε. In the singular, the terminations ω, εις, ει, are difficult to analyze, but in the dual and plural, the tense stem and personal endings are easily distinguished. λύοσι is for λου-νσι.

S139. The future stem of λύω is λύσο/ε, formed by adding the tense suffix σο or σε (σο/ε) to the verb stem.

S140. The first perfect stem of λύω is λε-λύκα, formed by reduplicating the verb-stem λύ and adding the tense suffix κα. The endings μι and σι are dropped and in the third singular final α is changed to ε. λελύκασι is for λελύκα-νσι.

S141. Vocabulary.
ἄγγελος, ου, ὁ, messenger, scout.
ἀντί, preposition, with genitive, instead of
ἀπό, preposition, with genitive, off from, from
ἀτῑμάξω, (ἀτιμαδ), ατῑμάσο, ἠτίμασα, ἠτίμακα, dishonor, disgrace.
δίκη, ης, ἡ, justice, punishment.
ἐπεί, conjunction, when, since.
ἐπὶστολή, ῆς, ἡ, letter.
θηρεύω, θηρεύσω, ἐθήρευσα, τεθήρευκα, (compare θηρίον) , hunt wild beasts, hunt, catch.
ὄλεθρος, ου, ὁ, destruction, loss.
οὔτως, (before a vowel) οὔτω (before a consonant), adverb, thus, so.
πάλιν, adverb, back, again.
φίλος, ου, ὁ, (compare φίλιος), friend.

1. ὁπλίτας ἤχᾱσιν ἀντὶ τοξοτῶν.
2. τοῖς συμμάχοις οὔτως ἐπὶβουλεύετε.
3. Κῦρον δὲ ἠτίμακε.
4. θηρία απὸ ἵππου (on horseback) τεθήρευκα.
5. τὰς ἐπὶστολὰς πέμψομεν τοῖς φίλοις;
6. Κλέαρχος, ὦ στρατιῶται, ἐπαὶ τοὺς ὅρκους λέλυκε, τὴν δίκην ἔχει.
7. τὴν δὲ χώραν ἡρπάκαμεν διὰ τὸν ὄλεθρον τῶν στρατιωτῶν.
8. τὸν ἄγγελον πέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ ἰσχυρὸν χωρίον.

1. The Hoplites they have sent instead of the bowmen. 2. The allies thus yous plotted agianst. 3. But Cyrus he dishonored. 4. Wild beasts on horseback I have hunted. 5. The letters we will send to the friends? 6. Clearchus, O soldiers, when his oaths he broke, the punisment he has. 7. The place we have plundered on account of the destruction (loss of) of the soldiers. 8. The messenger he sends back into the stronghold.

1. We shall collect the allies for our friends.
2. He has hunted wild beasts on horseback.
3. The messenger will sacrifice to the gods.
4. I have commanded the soldiers to plunder the wagons.
5. Cyrus sends the general a letter.

1. ἀθροισομεν συμμαχους τοῖς φιλοις. 2. τεθηρευκε θηρια ἀπὸ ἱππου. 3. ὁ ἀγγελος θυσει τοῖς θεοῖς. 4. κεκελευκα τὰς στρατιώτᾱς ἡρπαζειν τὰς ἅμαξας. 5. Κῦρος πέμπει τῷ στρατηγῳ ἐπὶστολην.

S144. Cyrus escapes with his life, and plots against his brother.
οὕτω δὴ (then) ἠτίμαζε τὸν αδελφὸν ἀρταξέρξης ἡ δὲ μήτηρ (compare Latin mater)
λύει Κῦρον καὶ ἀποπέμπει πάλιν επὶ τὴν αρχήν. Κῦρος δὲ ἐπεὶ ἧκεν
εἰς τὴν Λῡδίᾱν, βουλεύει ὅπῶς βασιλεύσει ἀντὶ τοῦ αδελφοῦ.
πολέμοις γὰρ αὐτῷ ἦν. οἱ δ᾽ ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ βάρβαροι
Κύρῳ φίλιοι καὶ πιστοὶ ἦσαν.

And so Artaxerxes was dishonoring his brother. But his mother was able to get Cyrus
released and sent back to his satrapy. While Cyrus was coming
into Lydia, he began planning how he shall be king instead of his brother;
(how he shall be king) for an enemy he was to him. And in the province the barbarians
were friendly and faithful to Cyrus.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 16


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin