Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XIV - Adjectives of the Vowel Declension

S126. Learn the declension of ἀγαθός, good, and of ἄξιος, worthy, in 750.

S127. The masculine and neuter of these adjectives follow the O-Declension, the feminine the A-Declension. They are, therefore, said to be of the Vowel Declension (34).

S128. If ε, ι, or ρ precedes ος, the nominative singular feminine ends in α, otherwise in η (37).

S129. The nominative, genitive, and vocative plural feminine follow the accent of the masculine, as ἄξιαι (following the accent of ἄξιος, like ἄξιοι), not ἀξίαι (from the nominative singular ἀξίᾱ), and ἀξίων, not ἀξιῶν as in nouns of the A-Declension.

S130. Some adjectives of the Vowel Declension have the masculine and feminine alike, as ἄπορος, ἄπορος, ἄπορον, impassable, impracticable.

S131. Vocabulary.
ἄγριος, ᾱ, ον, wild
ἄξιος, ᾱ, ον, worthy, becoming, right.
ἄπορος, ον, without resources,, impassible, impracticable.
Ἀρταξέρξης, ου, ὁ, Artaxerxes II.
ἐπιτήδειος, ᾱ, ον, suitable, fit, deserving; τὰ ἐπὶτήδεια, provisions, supplies.
ὄνος, ου, ὁ, ass
ὄρθιος, ᾱ, ον, steep
παίω, παίσω, ἔπαισα, πέπαικα, strike, hit, beat.
πάνυ, adverb, very, altogether, wholly.
πιστός, ή, ον, faithful, trustworthy.
φίλιος, ᾱ, ον, friendly.

1. ὄνοι ἄγριοι καὶ ἵπποι ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἦσαν.
2. ὁ εὐφράτης ποταμὸς ἄπορος ἦν.
3. ἡ δὲ ὀδὸς στενὴ ἦν καὶ ὀρθίᾱ.
4. ἕξομεν δὲ, ὦ Κῦρε, τὰ ἐπὶτήδεια;
5. ὁ Ἀρταξέρξης τῷ ἀδελφῷ πολέμιος ἦν.
6. διὰ φιλίᾱς ἀρχῆς ἄξει ὁ σατράπης τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς.
7. τὴν πολεμίᾱν χώρᾱν Δᾱρεῖς διηρπάκει.
8. ὥστε τῷ ἀρταξέρξῃ πάνυ πολέμιος ἦν, Κύρῳ δὲ πιστός.
9. οὐκ ἄξιον ἦν (it was not right) τῷ ὁπλίτῃ παίειν τὸν Περσικὸν τοξότην.
10. οἱ Πέρσαι οὔτε φίλιοι οὔτε πιστοὶ ἦσαν.

1. Wild asses and horses in the plain they were. 2. The Euphrates a river impassable it was. 3. The road narrow it was and steep. 4. We will have, O Cyrus, the supplies? 5. Artaxerxes to his brother, an enemy he was. 6. Through friendly territory will lead satrap he, the soldiers. 7. The enemies place (country) Darius had plundered. 8. So that with Artaxerxes enemies he was, to Cyrus he was faithful. 9. It is not right for the hoplite to hit the Persian bowman. 10. The Persians were not friends and were not faithful.

1. The road was impassible.
2. Cyrus did not send provisions to the garrison.
3. They will lead the men to strongholds.
4. The hoplites were good and faithful soldiers.
5. It was right for Cyrus to send gifts to his soldiers.

1. ἡ ὁδος ἀπορος ἦν. 2. ὁ Κῦρος οὐκ ἐπεμψε τὰ ἐπὶτηδεια τῇ φυλακῃ. 3. ἀγουσι τοὺς ἀνθρωπους χωριοις ἰσχυροις. 4. οἱ ὁπλῖται σταρατιωται ἀγαθοι καὶ πιστοὶ ἦσαν. 5. ἄξιον ἦν τῷ Κύρῳ δορα πέμπειν τοῖς στρατιῶταις.

S134. Artaxerxes becomes King and arrests Cyrus.
Κῦρος οὖν σατράπης ἦν τῆς Λῡδίᾱς καὶ τῆς Φρυγίᾱς καὶ τῆς Καππαδοκίᾱς.
ἐπεὶ δὲ ετελεύτησε Δᾱρεῖος, Ἀρταξέρξης ὁ τοῦ Κύρου ἀδελφὸς ἐβασίλευσε
τῶν Περσῶν, καὶ Τισσαφέρνης διαβάλλει τὸν Κῦρον πρὸς τὸν ἀδελφὸν
ὡς ἐπὶβουλεύει αὐτῷ. ὁ δ' Ἀρταξέρξης συλλαμβάνει Κῦρον.

οὖν then, continuing the narrative.
ἐπεί when
ἐτελεύτησε from τελευτάω, die, τελευτήσω, ἐτελεύτησα. Translate by the English pluperfect, had died.
ἐβασίλευσε the aorist sometimes has an inceptive force, as βασιλεύω, be king, ἐβασίλευσα, became king.
Περσῶν The genitive after a verb, signifying to rule. (847).
διαβάλλω throw over, throw at (with words), slander, traduce. διαβάλλει Historical present.
ὡς that, For ὡς επιβουλεύει (literally, that he was plotting) we should say, of plotting.

Cyrus then was satrap of Lydia, Phrygia and Cappadocia.
Upon the death of Darius, Artaxerxes, brother of Cyrus, became king
of Persia, and Tissaphernes maligned Cyrus before his brother,
saying that he was plotting against him. So Artaxerxes had Cyrus arrested.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 15


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin