Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson X - Future and First Aorist Indicative Active.

S86 Paradigms
1. λύσω I shall loose λύσομεν we shall loose
2. λύσεις you will loose λύσετε yous will loose
3. λύσει he will loose λύσουσι they will loose
2. λύσετον
3. λύσετον

1. ἐλύσα I loosed ἐλύσαμεν we loosed
2. ἐλύσας you loosed ἐλύσατε yous loosed
3. ἐλύσε he loosed ἐλύσαν they loosed
2. ἐλύσατον
3. ἐλύσατην

1. πέμψω I shall send πέμψομεν we shall send
2. πέμψεις you will send πέμψετε yous will send
3. πέμψει he will send πέμψουσι they will send
2. πέμψετον
3. πέμψετον

1. ἐπεμψα I had sent ἐπεμψαμεν we had sent
2. ἐπεμψας you had sent ἐπεμψατε yous had sent
3. ἐπεμψε he had sent ἐπεμψαν they had sent
2. ἐπεμψατον
3. ἐπεμψατην

S87. The aorist indicative expresses the simple occurrence of an action in past time; the imperfect (68) expresses its continuance.

S88. The future adds σω to the verb stem (54), the first aorist adds σα. The aorist, as a secondary tense, has augment (66,67).

S89. If the verb ends in a vowel, the stem may not be affected by the addition of σω and σα as λύ-ω, λύ-σω, ἐλύ-σα; βουλεύ-ω, βουλεύ-σω, ἐβουλεύ-σα.

S90. If the verb stem ends in a mute (7), euphonic changes occur :
1. A π-mute (π β φ) unites with σ and forms ψ (9), as πέμπ-ω, πεμψω, (πέμπ-σω), ἐπεμψα, (ἐπέμπ-σα).

2. A κ-mute (κ γ χ) unites with σ and forms ξ (9), as διωκ-ω, pursue, διωξω, (διωκ-σω), ἐδιωξα, (ἐδιωκ-σα).

3. A τ-mute (τ δ θ) before σ is dropped, as ἁρπάζω, (verb stem ἁρπαδ), ἁρπασω, (ἁρπαδ-σω), ἡρπασα, (ἡρπαδ-σα).

ἄξω Ι will lead ἄξομεν we will lead
ἄξες you will lead ἄξετε yous will lead
ἄξε he will lead ἄξουσι they will lead

ἕξω Ι will have led ἕξομεν we will lead
ἕξες you will have led ἕξετε yous will lead lead
ἕξε he will have led ἕξουσι they will lead

S91. Some verbs lack the first aorist. Such verbs often have a second aorist, which ends in ον, and is conjugated exactly like the imperfect (69), as

ἄγω, ἄξω, second aorist:
ἤγαγον I led, ἤγαγομεν we led
ἤγαγες you led, ἤγαγετε yous led
ἤγαγε, he led ἤγαγον they led

ἔχω, ἑξω second aorist:
ἔσχον I had, ἔσχομεν we had
ἔσχες, you had, ἔσχετε yous had
ἔσχε, he had, ἔσχον they had

S92. The present infinitive active ends in εἰν, as λύειν, to loose, πέμπειν, to send, etc.

S93. Compound verbs consist of a preposition and a simple verb. If the preposition ends in a vowel and the the simple verb begins with one, the vowel of the preposition is generally elided (16). Compound verbs take the augment between the preposition and the simple verb. If the vowels are thus brought together, the first is generally elided, as ἐπὶ-βουλεύω, plot against, imperfect ἐπ-εβουλεύον.

S94. Vocabulary
ἀθροίζω, (Verb Stem ἀθροιδ) ἀθροίσω, ἤθροισα, collect.
διώκω, διώξω, εδίωξα, pursue
ἐπὶβουλεύω, ἐπὶβουλεύσω, ἐπὶβούλευσα, plot against.
κελεύω, κελεύσω, ἐκέλευσα, command.
ἀδελφός, οῦ, ὁ, brother
βάρβαρος, ου, ὁ, barbarian
μισθός, οῦ, ὁ, pay.
πολέμιος, ᾱ, ον, (compare πόλεμος), hostile. As a noun, οἱ πολέμιοι, the enemy.
τότε, adverb, then, at that time.

Note: This key is different; it gives the whole gamut of each tense in one color, that is, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Person Singular and Plural, plus the Dual, all in one color.
σα|σας|σε|σαμεν|σατε|σαν|σατον|σάτην ------» First Aorist Ind Active ___ loosed
σω|σεις|σει|σομεν|σετε|σουσι|ουσιν|σετον --» Fut Aorist Ind Active ___ shall loose

1. ἕξουσι.
2. ἤθροισαν.
3. πέμψετε.
4. ἐκέλευσας.
5. ἐπὶβουλεύσομεν.
6. ἐδιώξατε.
7. ἠγάγομεν.
8. ἄξετε.
9. ἔσχες.
10. ἡρπάσαμεν.

1. They will lead. 2. They had gathered. 3. Yous will send. 4. You had commanded. 5. We will plot against. 6. Yous pursued. 7. We led (See 91) 8. Yous will lead. 9. You had. (See 90., part 2.) 10. We seized.

1. I shall pursue.
2. We shall have.
3. We commanded.
4. He will collect.
5. They led. (second aorist.)

1. διωξω. 2. ἑξομαν. 3. ἐκελύσαμεν. 4. ἀθροισει. 5. ἠγαγον.

1. οὐ διώξω τοὺς πολεμίους.
2. τὰ δῶρα ἕξομεν;
3. τὰς σκηνὰς ἁρπάσουσιν οἱ βάρβαροι.
4. κελεύσει τὸν στρατηγὸν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους λύειν.
5. τοὺς συμμάχους ἤγαγεν εἰς (among) τοὺς βαρβάρους.
6. Κῦρος ἐπὶβουλεύσει τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
7. τοῖς ἀνθρώποις τότε ἔπεμψε Κῦρος μισθόν.
8. ὁ δὲ στρατηγὸς τὴν φυλακὴν ἔσχε τὴν Ἑλληνικήν.*
*We might have τηνἙλληνικην φυλακην or φυλακην τὴν Ἑλληνικήν.
9. εἰς τὸ πεδίον αθροίσει τοὺς (his) Ἑλληνικοὺς συμμάχους.
10. καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν γέφυραν τὸν στρατηγὸν πέμπειν ἐκέλευσε Κῦρος φυλακήν.

1. I will not pursue the enemy. 2. The gifts we will have? 3. The tents they will plunder, the barbarians. 4. He will command the general the men to loose. or . . He will command the general the men to destroy. 5. The allies he led among the barbarians. 6. Cyrus will plan against his brother. 7. For the men at that time Cyrus sent their pay. 8. The general the Greek garrison he had. 9. Into the plain he will gather his Hellenic Allies. 10. Onto the bridge the general sends his garrison as he was ordered by Cyrus.

1. The barbarians sent the man.
2. The generals brought (second aorist) horses at that time.
3. Will Cyrus send good wine to the general?
4. He will not plot against the allies.
5. He will command the general to pursue the enemy.

1. οἱ βαρβαροι ἐπεμψαν τὸν ανθρωπον. 2. οἱ στρατηγοὶ ἠγαγον τοτε ἵππους. 3. πέμπψει Κῦρος αγαθον οἰνον τῷ στρατηγῳ; 4. οὐκ ἐπὶβουλεύσιε εἰς τοῖς συμμαχοις. 5. κελύσει τὸν στρατηγον διωξειν τοὺς πολεμίους.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 11


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin