Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson LXXIII - Verbal Adjectives

S677. Verbal adjectives are derived from verb stems, and are generally equivalent to passive participles in meaning. They are formed by adding τός and τέος to the verb stem, which generally has the same form as in the first aorist passive (with the change of φ and χ to π and κ (before τ).

thus, ποίεω, do, ἐποιήθην, ποιητέος; πορεύομαι, advance, ἐπορεύθην, πορευτέος; πέμπω, send, ἐπέμφθην, πςμπτέος; θαυμάζω, wonder at, ἐθαυμάσθην, θαυμαστός; πείθω, persuade, middle obey, ἐπείσθην, πειστέος; διώκω, pursue, ἐδιώχθην, διωκτέος.

S678. The verbal in τέος has both a personal and an impersonal construction, of which the latter is more common.

1. ἄλλαι νῆες μεταπεμπτέαι εἰσίν.
Other ships must be sent for.

2. ὠφελητέᾱ σοι ἡ πόλις ἐστίν.
The city must be succored by you.

S680. In the personal construction, the verbal in τεος is passive in sense, and expresses necessity, like the latin partiiciple in dus, agreeing with the subject. the agent is expressed by the dative.

1. ταῦτα ἡμῖν ποιητέον ἐστίν.
We must do this.

2. πεμπτέα ἐστὶ τὸν στρατηγὸν ὑμῖν.
You must send your general.

3. τὴν πορείαν ὑμῖν πεζῇ ποιητέον.
You must make the journey on foot.

S682. In the impersonal construction the verbal is in the neuter of the nominative singular (sometimes plural), with ἐστι expressed or understood. The expression is equivalent to δεῖ, one must, with the infinitive. it is practically active in sense, and allows transitive verbals to have an object like their verbs. the agent is expressed by the dative.

1. ἔλαθε τὸν Κῦρον ἀπελθών.
He went off unnoticed by Cyrus.

2. ἔτυχε γὰρ τάξις αὐτῷ ἑπομένη τῶν ὁπλῖτῶν.
As it chanced, a division of heavy-armed men was following him.

3. φθάσει τοὺς ἄλλους Κῦρος ἀφικόμενος.
Cyrus will arrive before the others.

S684. The participle with λανθάνω, escape the notice of, τυγχάνω, happen, and φθάνω, anticipate, contains the leading idea of the expression and is usually translated by a verb. The aorist participle here coincides in time with the verb (unless this expresses duration) and does not denote past time in itself.

ἀποπορειύομια, go off, depart,
ζηλωτός, ή, όν, (compare ζηλόω, envy), to be envied, enviable.
θαυμαστός, ή, όν, (compare. θαυμάζω), wonderful, surprising.
ἱππικός, ή όν, (compare. ἵππος), for cavalry; τὸ ἱππικόν, the cavalry, the horse.
λανθάνω, (λαθ), λήσω, ἔλαθον, λέληθα, λέλησμια, escape the notice of; middle forget,
μανθάνω, (μαθ), μαθήσομαι, ἔμαθον, μεμάθηκα, learn, esp., by inquiry, find out, hear of.
μετάπεμπτος, ον, (compare. μεταπέμπομαι), sent for.
μήποτε, (μὴ + ποτε), never.
ξίφος, ους, τό, sword.
φθάνω, (φθα), φθήσομαι and φθάσω, ἔφθην and ἔφθασα, anticipate, outstrip.

1. εἰς καλὸν ἥκετε˙ ἐπὶ γὰρ τό ὄρος πορευτέον.
καλὸν - Scilicet χρονον, in the nick of time.

2. σκεπτέον μοι δοκεῖ εἶναι ὅπῶς τὰ ὅπλα ἕξομεν, τὰ δόρατα καὶ τὰ ξίφη καὶ τὰ ἄλλα.

3. καὶ οἱ ἱππεῖς ἐλάνθανον αὐτοὺς ἐπὶ τῷ γηλόφῳ γενόμενοι.
αὑτους, they got there before they knew it.

4. οὐκ ἂν εἴη θαυμαστὸν εἰ τύχοιεν ταῦτα μαθόντες.

5. οὗτος δὲ τεταγμένος ἐτύγχανεν ἐπὶ τῷ εὐωνύμῳ τοῦ ἱππικοῦ ἄρχων.
ἱππικοῦ With ἀρχων, as commander of the horse.

6. ὠ ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, τὴν πορείᾱν πεζῇ ποιητέον˙ οὐ γὰρ ἐστι πλοῖα.

7. παρῆν δὲ καὶ Λακεδαιμόνιος τις ἐπὶ τῶν νεῶν, μετάπέμπτος ὑπὸ Κύρου.

8. καὶ φθάνουσιν ἐπὶ τῇ ἄκρῳ γενόμενοι τοὺς πολεμίους.

9. ἠμῖν δὲ πάντα ποιητέα ὡς μήποτ᾽ ἐπὶ τοῖς βαρβάροις γενώμεθα.

10. ἐγὼ δὲ ὑμῶν τὸν οἴκαδε βουλόμενον ἀποπορεύεσθαι τοῖς οἴκοι ζηλωτὸν ποιήσω.
an object of envy to his (friends) at home. For the two accusatives after ποιέω, see 840.

1. This it seems to me must be considered.
2. On the following day the generals resolved that they must advance through the mountains.
3. For there are many (reasons) why I must not do this.
Use the neuter plural.
why - δι᾽ ἁ.
4. It would not be surprising if Cyrus should think that he must pursue these men.
5. He says that the generals ought to consider what the hindrance is.

S688. Armor of Cyrus and his Bodyguard. The Enemy appear.
Κῦρος δὲ καὶ οἰ ἱππεῖς τούτου ὅσον ἐξακόσιοι ὡπλισμένοι ἦσαν
θώρᾱξι μὲν αὐτοὶ καὶ παραμηριδίοις καὶ κράνεσι πάντες πλὴν Kύρου.
Kῦρος δὲ ψῑλὴν εἶχε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐν τῇ μάχῃ· οἰ δ᾽ ἵπποι πάντες οἰ
μετὰ Kύρου εἶχον καὶ προμετωπίδια καὶ προστερνίδια. εἶχον δὲ καὶ
μαχαίρᾱς οἰ ἱππεῖς ῾Eλληνικάς. καὶ ἤδη τε ἦν μέσον ἡμέρᾱς καὶ
οὔπω καταφανεῖς ἦσαν οἱ πολέμιοι. ἡνίκα δὲ δείλη ἐγίγνετο, ἐφάνη
κονιορτὸς ὥσπερ νεφέλη λευκή, χρόνῳ δὲ πολλῷ ὕστερον ὥσπερ
μελανίᾱ τις ἐν τῷ πεδίῳ ἐπὶ πολύ.

ὅσον: neuter as adverb, with numerals, about.
πλὴν Κύρου: the exception extends only to κρανεσι.
ἡνικα . . .ἐγίγνετο: when it began to be (literally, was becoming) afternoon.
ἐφάνη: there was seen.
χρόνῳ . . .ἐπὶ πολύ: considerably later (the cloud of dust appeared) just like a sort of blackness in the plain for a great distance (ἐπὶ πολύ). For χρονῳ, a dative of the degree of difference, see 867.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 74


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin