THE FIRST GREEK BOOK
BY JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D, LL.D., LITT.D.
Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin
Lesson LXXI - First Passive System. Complex Sentences in Indirect Discourse
S656. Review 553, 6.
S657. Conjugate the first passive system of λύω, loose, in 770. Give its synopsis, first in the first aorist, then in the first future.
S658. Liquid verbs suffer in the main the same changes in the first passive system as in the first perfect system (623-626).
thus, ἀγγέλλω (αγγελ), ἠγγέλθην (623); τείνω (τεν), ἐτάθην (624, 625);
κρίνω (κριν), ἐκρίθην (625); βάλλω (βαλ), ἐβλήθην; τέμνω (τεμ), ἐτμήθην (626).
S659. If ν is not dropped (625), it remains unchanged, as φαίνω (φαν), ἐφάνθην.
S660. When a complex sentence, i.e. a sentence consisting of a leading and a dependent clause or clauses, is
indirectly quoted, its leading verb follows the rule for simple sentences (569, 572, 590, 469, 608, 628), but its dependent verb or
verbs are subject to the law illustrated in the following examples:
1 λέγει ὅτι φλυᾱρεῖ ὅστις ταῦτα λέγει.
He says that whoever says this talks nonsense.
2. κολῶς ἕξειν φησίν, ἐὰν τοῦτο πράττωσι.
He says that it will be well if they do this.
3. ὑπισχνεῖται αὐτοῖς μὴ πρόσθεν παύσεσθαι πρὶν ἂν αὐτοὺς καταγάγῃ οἴκαδε.
He promises them not to stop until he brings them back home.
4. τοὺς ἡγεμόνας φησὶν ἄξειν οὓς μετεπέμψαντο.
He says that he will bring the guides whom they sent for.
5. λέγει ὅτι καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν εἰ ἔπρᾱξαν τοῦτο.
He says that it would have been well if they had done this.
6. φησὶ πρᾶξαι ἂν ὅ τι βούλοιντο.
He says that he would do whatever they might wish.
Each complex sentence is here quoted after a primary tense, and the verb of its dependent clause changes neither its mood nor its
tense. Convert each quoted complex sentence above into its original form.
1. εἶπεν ὅτι φλυᾱροίη ὅστις ταῦτα λέγοι. (this might be ὅστις ταῦτα λέγει)
He said that whoever said this talked nonsense.
2. καλῶς ἕξειν ἔφη, εἰ τοῦτο πράττοιεν (this might be ἐὰν τοῦτο πράττωσι)
He said that, it would be well if they did this.
3. ὑπέσχετο αὐτοῖς μὴ πρόσθεν παύσεσθαι πρὶν αὐτοὺς καταγάγοι οἴκαδε
(this might be πρὶν ἂν αὐτοὺς καταγάγῃ)
He promised them not to stop until he brought them back home.
Here the dependent clause follows a secondary tense, and its verb (originally a primary tense of the indicative or a subjunctive)
may either be changed to the same tense of the optative or retained in the original mood and tense, When the subjunctive becomes the
optative, ἂν is dropped (ἐὰν becoming εἰ),
4. τοὺς ἡγεμόνας ἔφη ἀξειν οὓς μετεπέμψαντο (this could not be οὓς μεταπέμψαιντο)
He said that he would bring the guides, whom they had sent for.
5. ἔλεξεν ὄτι καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν εἰ ἔπρᾱξαν τοῦτο. (here no change is possible)
He said that it would have been well, if they had done this.
6 ἔφη πρᾶξαι ἂν ὁ τι βούλοιντο. (no change is possible)
He said that he would do whatever they might wish.
Here the dependent clause follows a secondary tense, but its verb (originally a secondary tense of the indicative or an optative) retains its mood and tense,
S663. When a complex sentence is indirectly quoted, after primary tenses the dependent verbs retain the
same mood and tense, After past tenses, dependent primary tenses of the indicative and all dependent subjunctives may either be
changed to the same tense of the optative, or retain their original mood and tense. When a subjunctive becomes optative, ᾽an is
dropped. But dependent secondary tenses of the indicative and dependent optatives remain unchanged.
αἰσχύνω, (αἰσχυν), αἰσχυνῶ, ᾔσχῡνα, ᾐσχύνθην (compare αἰσχρός), shame;
αἰσχύνομαι as passive deponent, feel ashamed, feel ashamed before.
ἄλλως, (compare ἄλλος), adverb, otherwise.
ἀνοίγω, ἀνοίξω, ἀνέῳξα, ἀνέῳγα. and ἀνέῳχα, ἀνέῳγμαι, ἀνεῴχθην, open up, open.
δέω, δήσω, ἔδησα, δέδεκα, δέδεμαι, ἐδέθην, bind, fetter.
κατασχίζω, split open, burst open.
ὅσος, ἠ, ὀν, relative pronoun, how much or great, how many, as.
πώς, adverb, in any way, at all (enclitic).
πωφροσύνη, ης, ἡ, self-control.
σωφροσύνη, ης, ἡ, sanity, soundness of mind, sane
τιτρώσκω, (τρο), τρώσω, ἔτρωσα, τέτρωμαι, ἐτρώθην, wound.
τοσούτος, η, ον, demonstrative pronoun, so much, so many.
τυγχάνω, (τυχ), τεύξομαι, ἔτυχον, τετύχηκα, and τέτευχα, hit, attain, get, happen.
φλυᾱρέω, φλυᾱρήσω, talk nonsense, talk bosh.
Give the original forms of all the indirect quotations and questions in the following exercise (665)
1. ᾐσχύνθημεν καὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἀνθρώπους τὸν ἠγεμόνα δῆσαι.
2. ἠρώτων πολλοὶ εἰ ἡσθήσεται βασιλεύς, ἐὰν οἴκαδε πορευώμεθα.
3. Kῦρος γὰρ ἐνόμιζεν ὅσῳ θᾶττον ἔλθοι, τοσούτῳ ἀπαρασκευοτέρῳ βασιλεῖ μαχεῖσθαι.
ὅσῳ . . . τοσούτῃ, by how much . . . by so much, ie. in english, the . . . the, datives of the degree of difference (867).
4. κατασχίσειν τε τὰς πύλᾱς ἔφασαν, εἰ μὴ ἑκόντες ἀνοίξειαν.
5. ἔνθα πολλὴν σωφροσύνην ἐδιδάχθησανοἱ παῖδες.
σωφροσύνην, Cyrus thought, ὅσῳ ἂν θᾶττον ἔλθω, τοσούτῳ ἀπαρασκευοτέρῳ βασιλεῖ μαχοῦμαι.
6. Κῦρος ὑπέσχετο αὐτοῖς, εἰ καλῶς καταπράξειε τὸν στόλον, μὴ πρόσθεν παύσεσθαι πρὶν αὐτοὺς καταγάγοι οἴκαδε.
7 καὶ πολλοὶ ἐτρώθησαν τῶν πελταστῶν.
8. οὗτος δ᾽ εἶπεν ὅτι φλυᾱροίη ὅστις λέγοι ἄλλως πως σωτηρίᾱς ἂν τυχεῖν.
σωτηρίᾱς the genitive follows verbs signifying to attain (845).
ἂν τυχειν In the original ἂν τυχοιμι.
9. οἱ μὲν δὴ στρατηγοὶ οὕτω ληφθέντες ἤχθησαν πρὸς βασιλέᾱ καὶ ἀποτμηθέντες τὰς κεφαλὰς ἐτελεύτησαν.
κεφαλὰς compare 616, 5.
10. τοῦτο δὴ δεῖ λέγειν, πῶς ἂν πορευοίμεθα τε ὡς ἀσφαλέστατα καὶ εἰ μάχεσθαι δέοι
ὡς κράτιστα μαχοίμεθα.
ἀσφαλέστατα as safely as possible. For ὡ, with superlatives, latin quam, see the general vocabulary.
μαχοίμεθα -ἂν belongs also with μαχοίμεθα.
1. The soldiers were drawn up and forced to proceed.
Use the aorist participle.
2. But the enemy flee in fear that they will be encircled on both sides.
Use the aorist participle of δείδω.
3. You will be forced to open the gates.
4. If these should be worsted, nobody would be left.
5. He promised him that if he would come he would make him a friend to Cyrus.
S667. The King is Coming!
καὶ ἤδη τε ἦν ἀμφὶ ἀγορὰν πλήθουσαν καὶ πλησίον ἦν ὁ σταθμὸς
ἔνθα Kῦρος ἔμελλε καταλύειν, ἡνίκα ἀνὴρ Πέρσησ προφαίνεται
ἐλαύνων ἀνὰ κράτος καὶ εὐθὺς πᾶσιν οἷς ἐνετύγχανεν ἐβόᾱ καὶ
βαρβαρικῶς καὶ Ἐλληνικῶς ὄτι βασιλεὺς σὺν στρατεύματι πολλῷ
προσέρχεται ὡς (as if) εἰς μάχην παρεσκευασμένος. ἔνθα δὴ πολὺς
τάραχος ἐγένετο. αὐτίκα γὰρ ἐδόκουν οἰ Ἕλληνης καὶ πάντες δὲ
ἀτάκτοις σφίσιν ἐπιπεσεῖσθαι.
ἦν . . . πλήθουσαν: it was about the time of full market.
σταθμὸς: halting place.
προφαίνεται . . . κράτος: comes in sight riding at full speed.
καὶ πάντες δὲ and (δὲ) all alike, i.e. Persians as well as Greeks.
ἐπιπεσεῖσθαι: their thought was, ἀτάκτοις (in disorder) ἡμῖν ἐπιπεσειται βασιλεύς. see ἐπὶ-πιπτω.
See the route on the map.
End Of Chapter
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin