Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson LXV - Second Aorist System. Indirect Discourse

S602. Review 554.

S603. The second tenses differ from the corresponding first tenses in form, but have like meaning. When, however, a verb has both tenses, they may differ also in meaning. Comparatively few verbs have both forms.

S604. The second aorist system includes the second aorist active and middle.

S605. Conjugate the second aorist system of λείπω, leave, in 773. Give its synopsis in the active; in the middle.

a. Note the exceptions to the principle of recessive accent (53), λιποῦ, λιπεῖν, λιπέσθαι, λιπών.

S606. The stem of the second aorist is formed by adding the tense suffix (135) ο/ε to the verb stem, as λείπω (λιπ), leave, second aorist stem λιπο/ε. In a few second aorists, ε of the stem is changed to α. As a secondary tense, the second aorist has augment in the indicative. It follows the inflection of the present system (553,1), having in the indicative the inflection of the imperfect, and in the other moods that of the present.

S607. Review 558 and 468, 469. Note, further, under the rule given in 469, that:

S608. Each tense of the infinitive with ἂν in indirect discourse represents the corresponding tense of either indicative or optative with ἂν.

Thus: σὺν ὑμῖν ἂν οἶμαι εἶναι τίμιος.
With you I think that I should be in honor,
(The original thought is, σὺν ὑμῖν ἂν εἴην τίμιος.)

S609. Of the three common verbs meaning to say,
1. φημί regularly takes the infinitive in indirect discourse;
2. εἶπον (second aorist, said) regularly takes ὅτι or ὡς with the indicative or optative;
3. λέγω allows either construction, but in the active voice it generally takes ὅτι or ὡς.

a. Note also that δοκέω takes the infinitive in indirect discourse (1) in its common meaning of seem, appear, both when used personally and when used impersonally; (2) in its less frequent meaning of consider, think, suppose. When δοκέω means seem right, good, or best, the infinitive that follows is not in indirect discourse.

αἱρέω, (αἱρε, ἑλ), αἱρήσω, εἷλον, ᾕρηκα, ἥρημαι, ἡρέθην, take, seize, capture; middle, take for oneself, choose, prefer, elect, side with.
ἀποθνῄσκω, die off, die, be killed, fall in battle.
εἶπον, (εἰπ, ἐρ, ῥε), ἐρῶ, εἴρηκα, εἴρημαι, ἐρρήθην, say, speak, tell, order.
ἄμαχος, ου, ὁ, ἡ, not disposed to fight, not quarrelsome or contentious.
ἐμπίπτω, fall upon.
θνῄσκω, (θαν), θανοῦμαι, ἔθανον, τέθνηκα, (compare θάνατος), die; perfect, be dead.
πάσχω, (παθ, πενθ), πείσομαι, ἔπαθον, πέπονθα, experience, suffer; εὖ παθεῖν, be well treated.
πίπτω, (πετ, πτο), πεσούμαι, ἔπεσον, πέπτωκα, fall.
πρὸτρέχω, run forward or ahead.
πυνθάνομαι (πυθ), πεύσομαι, ἐπυθόμην, πέπυσομαι, inquire, learn by inquiry, ascertain, find out.
τρέχω, (τρεχ, δραμ), δραμούμαι, ἔδραμον, δεδράμηκα, δεδράμημαι, run.
ὤνιος, α, ον, purchasable. τὰ ὤνια, wares, goods.

Give the original forms of all the indirect quotations in the following exercise (611).

1. τοῖς βαρβάροις ἐνέπεσε τό Ἑλληνικόν.
βαρβάροις The dative follows compound verbs (865).

2. εἶπον ὅτι ἂν φύγοιεν.

3. πάντες οἱ φίλοι λέγονται ἀποθανεῖν μαχόμενοι ὑπὲρ Κύρου.

4. ἔχω γὰρ τριήρεις ὥστε ἐλεῖν τὸ ἐκείνων πλοῖον.
ἐλεῖν For the infinitive following ὥστε, see 471.

5. Κλέαρχος δοκεῖ γενέστθαι ἀνὴρ πολεμικός.

6. νομίζει Κῦρος ὑπʼ ἐμοῦ κακῶς παθεῖν.

7. καὶ οἱ ὄνοι προέδραμον.

8. δρόμος ἐγένετο τοῖς στρατιώταις ἐπὶ τὰς σκηνάς, οἱ δ᾽ ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ καταλιπόντες τὰ ὤνια ἔφυγον.
Equivalent to οἱ στρατιῶται ἔδραμον.

9. οὗτοι ἔλεγον ὅτι Κῦρος τέθνηκe

10. ὑμῶν δὲ ἔρημος ὢν οὐκ ἂν ἱκανὸς οἶμαι εἶναι τοὺς φίλους ὠφελῆσαι.
ὑμῶν For the genitive depending on ἔρημο see 855.

11. ἐπεὶ ὁ στρατηγὸς ταυτ᾽ ἐπύθετο, λαβὼν τοὺς ἱππέᾱς ἀπήλασεν.

12. καὶ περὶ τούτων ὑπέσχετο μοι βουλεύσεσθαι.

1. Within the night fear fell also on the Greeks.
2. This he did that he might inspire all men with fear.
Use the aorist of παρεχω.
3. The wife of the king is said to have fled.
4. They say that all left the road and fled.
Aorist participle, all having left the road fled.
5. He preferred the friendship of the Persians.

S613. Cyrus is confident that the King will fight.
παρεκελεύοντο δὲ Κύρῳ πάντες μὴ μάχεσθαι, ἀλλ᾽ ὄπισθεν
ἐαυτῶν τάττεσθαι ἐν δὲ τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ Κλέαρχος ὧδέ πῶς
ἐρωτᾷ τὸν Κῦρον˙ "Οἴει γὰρ σοι μαχεῖσθαι, ὡ Κῦρε, τὸν
ἀοελφόν;" "Νὴ Δί᾽," ἔφη ὁ Κῦρος, "εἴπερ γέ Δᾱρείου καὶ
παρυσάτιδός ἐστι παῖς, ἐμὸς δὲ ἀδελφός, οὐκ ἀμαχεὶ ταυτ᾽
ἐγὼ λήψομαι."

μὴ μάχεσθαι: i.e, in person.
ἑαυτῶν: after the adverb of place (856).
γάρ: with reference to some unexpressed intimation of Cyrus, What! do you think, etc.
Νὴ διὰ: Yes, by Zeus, accusative in an oath (837).

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 66


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin