Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson LIII - Participles Middle and Passive

S492. Learn the seven forms of the middle and passive participles of λύω in 765-770. all participles in ος are declined like ἀγαθὸς (750). Learn the declension of λυθείς in 754.

S493. The special suffix (484) added to the tense stem in the middle and passive to form the participles is meno. But the aorist passive uses the active ending ντ, as λυθε-ντ, and is oxytone. The perfect middle and passive has the acute on the penult.

S494. For the present participles of contract verbs, m the middle and passive, see 781-783.

S495. The participle may define the circumstances of an action. e.g.:

1. τοὺς βαρβάρους νῑκήσαντες οἴκαδε ἐπορεύοντο.
When they had conquered the barbarians, they proceeded home.

2. ἀδικηθεὶς αὐτὸν ἔπαισα.
I struck him because I had been wronged.

3. ἐπορεύοντο τὴν χώρᾱν ἁρπάζοντες.
They advanced ravaging the country.

4. ἐπορεύετο ἐπὶ τὴν πόλιν τὰς σπονδὰς ποιησόμενος.
He proceeded to the city to make the truce.

5. σωθέντες ἂν χάριν ὑμῖν ἔχοιμεν.
If we should be saved, we should feel grateful to you.

6. μέσον ἔχων τῆς αὐτοῦ στρατιᾶς ὅμως ἔξω ἐγένετο τοῦ Κύρου εὐωνύμου κέρατος.
Although he was at the center of his own force, nevertheless he was beyond Cyrus’s left wing.

7. παρῆν ἔχων ὁπλίτᾶς τριακουσίους.
He was there with 300 hoplites.

These participles express time (1), cause (2), means or manner (3), purpose (4), condition (5), concession (6), and attendant circumstance (7).

Ἑλλήσποντος, ου, ὁ, the Hellespont.
ἐξαιτέω, ask from, demand; middle, beg off.
ἔξεστι, impers., it is allowed or possible.
ἔξειμι, (ἔξ + εἶμι), imperfect ἐξῄειν, infinitive ἐξιέναι participle ἐξιών, to go out or forth, accusative to depart ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν, to get to land, from the water.
ἔξω (compare ἐξ), adverb, outside, beyond, beyond the reach of.
ἐρμηνεύω, future ἐρμηνεὔσω, (ἑρμηνεύς, an interpreter) to translate, interpret, explain.
ἱερός, ά, ον, sacred; τό ἱερα, sacrifices, omens.
καταλαμβάνω, seize upon, capture.
μάλιστα, (compare μαλλον), adverb, most, especially.
Μίλητος, ου, ἡ, Miletus.
μόνος, η, ον, alone, only; μονον, as adverb, alone, only.
πρὸτῑμάω, honor before others or especially.
Χερρόνησος, ου, ἡ, the Chersonese.

1. ἐμοί, ὦ ἄνδρες, θῡομένῳ τὰ ἱερὰ καλὰ ἦν.

2. νῦν ἔξεστιν αὐτοῖς σωθεῖσι πορεύεσθαι.

3. φοβούμενοι δὲ τὴν ὁδὸν ὅμως εἵποντο.

4. πέμψωμεν δὲ ἄνδρας καταληψομένους τὰ ἄκρα.

5. μόνοι καταλελειμμένοι ὅμως τοὺς φύλακας κατακόψαντες ἔξω ἐγένοντο.

6. καὶ ἐπολέμει ἐκ Χερρονήσου ὁρμώμενος τοῖς; Θρᾳξὶ τοῖς ὑπὲρ Ἑλλήσποντον οἰκοῦσι.

7. τότε προτῑμώμενος μάλιστα ὑπὸ Κύρου νῦν ἡμᾶς τοὺς Κύρου φίλους κακῶς ποιεῖν πειρᾶται.

8. ἡ δὲ μήτηρ ἐξαιτησαμένη αὐτὸν ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν αρχήν.

9. τί οὖν, ἔφη ὁ Κῦρος, ἀδικηθεὶς ὑπ᾽ ἐμοῦ νῦν ἐπιβουλεύεις μοι;
Cognate accusative (833), because you have suffered what wrong?

1. They will not wrong us, if we make a truce with them.
2. They fled from the hill, in fear that they should be cut to pieces.
3. But Xenophon, when he had thus offered sacrifice, proceeded to Miletus.
4. This man, although he had been sent to bid the Greeks proceed, advised them as follows.
5. Aristippus, the Thessalian, since he was hard pressed by his enemies, asked Cyrus for pay.

S499. Orontas is brought to Trial.
ὁ δὲ Κῦρος συλλαμβάνει Ὀρόνταν, καὶ συγκαλεῖ εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ
σκηνὴν Πέρσᾱς τῶν περὶ αὐτὸν ἑπτά, καὶ τοὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων
στρατηγοὺς ἐκέλευσεν ὁπλίτᾶς ἀγαγεῖν, τούτους δὲ ταχθῆναι περὶ
τὴν αὑτοῦ σκηνήν. οἱ δὲ ταῦτα ἐποίησαν, ἀγαγόντες ὡς (about)
τρισχῑλίους ὁπλίτᾶς. Κλέαρχον δὲ καὶ εἴσω παρεκάλεσε σύμβουλον˙
οὗτος γὰρ καὶ αὐτῷ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἐδόκει προτῑμηθῆναι μάλιστα
τῶν Ἑλλήνων.

Second aorist infinitive (indicative ἤγαγον). In line 4 the second aorist participle, ἀγαγόντες, occurs.
i.e: Cyrus: Not only Cyrus but also the rest of the Persians thought that Clearchus was the most prominent man among the Greeks.
Partitive genitive with μάλιστα (842).


See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 54


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin