Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXXIX - Optative Active (continued). Optative in Final Clauses, Object Clauses

S369. Learn the conjugation of the present optative of εἰμί in 795.

S370. 1. τὴν γέφυραν ελύσαμεν, ἵνα (also ὡς or ὅπῶς) τοὺς πολεμίους κωλύσαιμεν,
we destroyed the bridge, that we might check the enemy.

2. τοῦτον ἀπήγομεν, ἵνα μὴ (also ὡς μὴ, or ὅπῶς μὴ, or simply μὴ) κακῶς τοὺς φίλους ποιήσειε,
we led him away, that he might not do our friends harm.

The clauses which express purpose here take the optative (compare 325), but they are introduced by the same final particles that introduce the subjunctive. The verb of the principal clause is here in a secondary (50) tense.

S371. Clauses which denote purpose (or final clauses) are introduced by the final particles ἵνα, ὡς or ὅπῶς, and take the optative after secondary tenses. The negative is μή.

1. βουλεύεται ὅπῶς βασιλεύσει ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, he plans that he may be king in place of his brother.

2. ἐβουλεύετο ὅπῶς βασιλεύσει ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, he planned that he might be king in place of his brother.

3. βουλεύεται ὅπῶς μὴ ἔσται ἐπὶ. τῷ ἀδελφῷ, he plans that he may not be in his brother's power.

4. ἐβουλεύετο ὅπῶς μὴ ἔσται ἐπὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ, he planned that he might not be in his brother's power.

The subordinate clause is here the object of the leading verb, which signifies to plan or strive for (the leading verb may also signify to care for, to effect); this subordinate clause is introduced by ὅπῶς or, if negative, by ὅπῶς μή, and has the future indicative whether the principal verb is in a primary or a secondary tense.

S373. Object clauses depending on verbs signifying to strive for, to care for, to effect, regularly take the future indicative with ὅπῶς or ὅπῶς μή after both primary and secondary tenses.

ἐπιμελέομαι, ἐπιμελήσομαι, ἐπιμεμέλημαι, ἐπεμελήθην, exercise care, care for, give attention to, see to.
ἔρημος, η, ον, and ος, ον (130), deserted, uninhabited, deprived of.
ζητέω, ζητήσω, etc., seek, ask for.
λαμβάνω (λαβ), λήψομαι, ἔλαβον, εἴληφα, εἴλημμαι, ἐλήφθην, take, receive, get, find.
πορίζω (ποριδ), ποριῶ, etc., furnish, provide, middle, obtain
τῑμή, ῆς, ἡ, (compare. τῑμάω), value, honor, esteem.
τίμιος, ᾱ, ον, (compare τῑμή), valued, dear.

1. ὁ ἄρχων τοῖς Ἕλλησιν ἡγεμόνα ἔπεμψεν, ἵνα διὰ τῆς πολεμίᾱς χώρᾱς ἄγοι αὐτούς.

2. τοῦτον τὸν ἄνδρα ὠφέλει ἵνα φίλον ἔχοι.

3. τίς ἐπιμελεῖται ὅπῶς οἱ στρατιῶται τὸν μισθὸν λήψονται;

4. τῶν δὲ βαρβάρων ἐπεμελεῖτο, ὅπῶς πολεμεῖν τε ἱκανοὶ εἴησαν καὶ εὖνοι αὐτῷ.
βαρβάρων The genitive follows verbs signifying to care for (846).

5. ἐζήτουν τοὺς ἄρχοντας, ἵνα αὐτοῖς συμβουλεύοιεν.

6. τῷ Κλεάρχῳ ἐπεβούλευε Μένων, ἵνα φίλος εἴη τῷ σατράπῃ.

7. ἄξιοι ἂν εἶτε τῑμῆς φίλοι, εἰ πορίζοιτε τῷ στρατεύματι ὅπλα.
The genitive depending on ἄξιος, worthy, is the genitive of value (853).

8. ἐπιμελήσεται ὁ Κῦρος ὅπῶς οἱ, στρατιῶται χάριν ἕξουσιν αὐτῷ.

9. καὶ σὺν αὐτοῖς μὲν εἴην ἂν τίμιος, αὐτῶν δὲ εἰ ἔρημος εἴην, οὐκ ἂν ἱκανὸς εἴην τοὺς ψίλους ὠψελεῖν.
The genitive depends on adjectives signifying fullness or want (855).

1. If you should send a guide, we should be grateful.

2. This he did that the rest of the Greeks might withdraw.
Use the aorist.

3. He took care that he should have good friends.

4. I did this in order that the enemy might not hear.

5. Let us plan to get provisions.

S377. Advance through the Desert of Arabia.
ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει διὰ τῆς, Ἀραβίᾱς, τὸν εὐφράτην
ποταμὸν ἐν δεξιᾷ ἔχων, σταθμοὺς ἐρήμους πέντε
παρασάγγᾱς τριάκοντα καὶ πέντε. ἐν τούτῳ δὲ τῷ τόπῳ ἦν
ἡ γῆ πεδίον ἅπαν ὁμαλὸν ὥσπερ θάλαττα. θηρία δὲ
παντοῖα ἐνῆν, ὄνοι ἄγριοι καὶ στρουθοὶ αἱ Ἀράβιαι˙
ἐνῆσαν δὲ καὶ ὠτίδες καὶ δορκάδες. ταῦτα δὲ τὰ θηρία
οἱ στρατιῶται ἐνίοτε ἐδίωκον ἀπὸ ἵππων˙ καὶ τοὺς
ὄνους χαλεπὸν ἦν λαμβάνειν˙ θᾶττον γὰρ τῶν ἵππων

στρουθοί: ostrich.
­ἵππων: a genitive of comparison (858) after θαττον, more quickly, the comparative of the adverb ταχεως, quickly.


See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 40


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin