Professor Of Ancient Greek At Harvard University
This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin

Lesson XXVIII - Contract Verbs in αω in the Indicative

S268. Two successive vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, within a word, may be united by CONTRACTION in a single long vowel or diphthong.

S269. Verbs in αω, εω, and οω contract the final α, ε, ο of the verb stem with the following vowel or diphthong in the present and imperfect.

S270. Learn the conjugation of the present and imperfect indicative, active, middle, and passive of τῑμάω, honor, in 781.

S271. Observe that:
(1) α + ο, ου, or ω = ω;
α + ε = ᾱ
α + ει = ᾳ.
S272. A contracted syllable is accented if either of the original syllables had an accent. A contracted penult or antepenult is accented regularly. (21,22). A contracted final syllable is circumflexed; but if the original word is oxytone (25), the acute is retained.

S273. A verb is called a vowel verb, a mute verb, or a liquid verb, according to the final letter of its stem. This may be a vowel, a mute or a liquid (λ μ ν ρ).

S274. Most stems ending in a short vowel lengthen this vowel in all tenses except the present and imperfect, α or ε to η, and ο to ω; but α after ε, ι, or ρ generally becomes ᾱ.

Thus, τῑμάω, τῑμήσω, ἐτίμησα, τετίμηκα, τετίμημαι, ἐτῑμήθην.

S275. Vocabulary.
βοάω, βοήσομαι, ἐβόησα, shout, cry out, call out.
εἰ, conjunction, if, whether (a proclitic).
ἐρωτάω, ἐρωτήσω, etc, ask a question, inquire.
νῑκάω, νῑκήσω, etc., (compare νίκη), conquer, surpass, be victorious.
Ξενοφῶν, ῶντος, ὁ, an Athenian, author of Anabasis.
ὁρμάω, ὁρμήσω, etc., set in motion, rush; middle, set out or forth, start.
πολλάκις, adverb, often, frequently.
τῑμάω, τῑμήσω, etc. (compare ἀτῑμάζω), value, esteem, honor.

1. ἐνῑκᾶτε τοὺς μετὰ Κύρον φύλακας.

2. νῑκώμεθα ὑπὸ τῶν κιλίκων.

3. ὁ δὲ Ξενοφῶν αὐτὸν ἠρώτᾱ, "Τί (why) βοᾷς;"

4. Κῦρος δὲ ὡρμᾶτο ἀπὸ τῆς κώμης τῆς νυκτὸς μετὰ Ξενοφῶντος.
Note: νυκτος Genitive of the time within which (854).

5. οἱ ἀμφὶ Κῦρον λέγουσιν ὄτι τὰ πάντα νῑκῶσι.
Adverbial accusative (835) are completely victorious.

6. Κῦρος Κλέαρχον πολλάκις ἐτετῑμήκει˙ πάντας γὰρ τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς εἰς πόλεμον ἐτίμᾱ.

7. ἐρωτᾷ εἰ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις στρατιώταις αἱ σπονδαί εἰσιν.

8. οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται ἐνίκων τοὺς θρᾷκας.

9. ἐν τοῖς Πέρσαις οἱ γέροντες τῑμῶνται.

10. καὶ εὐθὺς τῷ Κλεάρχῳ ἐβόᾱ ἄγειν τὸ στράτευμα κατὰ μέσον τὸ τῶν πολεμίων.
Note the position of the article (812).

1. He conquers the enemy.
2. And he honored the general with other gifts.
Note: Use the dative. (866).
3. But the soldiers were shouting to the guards to stop.
4. This man asks whether you admire the army.
5. When Cyrus set out, I proceeded at once to Phrygia.
Note: for "proceed" and "set out", use the imperfect.

S278. The Speech of Clearchus, and its Effect.
"ἄνδρες (fellow) στρατιῶται, ἐμοὶ ξένος ἐστὶν ὁ Κῦρος καὶ
πολλάκις ἤδη τετίμηκε. βούλομαι οὖν συμπορεύεσθαι αὐτῷ.
ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑμεῖς ἐμοὶ οὐκ ἐθέλετε πείθεσθαι, ἐγὼ σὺν ὑμῖν
ἕψομαι˙ ὑμεῖς γὰρ ἐμοί ἐστε καὶ φίλοι καὶ σύμμαχοι.
ταῦτα ἔλεξεν. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται οἱ τε αὐτοῦ ἐκείνου
καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι ἐπαινοῦσι˙ παρὰ δὲ τῶν ἄλλων στρατηγῶν
δισχίλιο ἔχοντες τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τὰ σκευοφόρα στρατπεδεύοντι
παρὰ Κλέαρχον.

ἐμοὶ: dative of the first personal pronoun ἐγω, I (Latin ego). For the case, see 862.
ὑμεῖς: you (plural), genitiveὑμων, dativeὑμιν, accusativeὑμας.
ἕψομαι: future of ἑπομαι, follow
ἐπαινοῦσι: by contraction for ἐπαινεουσι, from ἐπαινεω, praise.

See the route on the map.

End Of Chapter


Chapter 29


This Revision Copyright ©2012 by Shawn Irwin